The audience that this poem was directed at was mimed towards everyone who had knowledge about the racism that was occurring at the time, or the power to change it. The particular racism that was being referred to was the Jim Crow Laws. In the early-mid sass, the Jim Crow Laws were still in place (and had been in place since 1876) and made segregation constitutional, and creating segregated public facilities. After World War II, which was around when this poem was written, the Jim Crow saws were started to be questioned, but they ended in 1965.
We believe that this poem had many purposes. It was used to express a deep satisfaction towards the racist situation that was occurring at the timing, yet there were elements of positivist, that also conveyed a message of hope. The text also assisted in encouraging anyone who were against Crow Laws, and to persuade people who are supporting them to change their minds. Overall, there was a very strong anti-segregation message portrayed.