Since human resource management was recognized as an independent and important function, it was earliest called “Personnel Relations”, evolving to “Industrial Relations”, then “Employee Relations” and , finally, to its current Anne “Human Resource Management. ” Although the terminology of human resource management is a new term some of the vital principles have been used since prehistoric times. Such practices as mechanisms for selecting tribal leaders and recording knowledge and passing it along to future generations about safety, health, hunting and gathering can be shown documented as early as 1 000
B. C. To 2000 B. C. The Chinese are known as one of the first cultures to use employee screening techniques tracing back as far as 1 115 B. C. And the concept of “the apprentice” system can be traced back to the Greek and Babylonian civilizations, ages before the medieval times. (Sheet, 201 1). Regardless of the title the human resource managers tasks continue to grow and develop with a linty of responsibly all surrounding the concept of take care of the people and the people will in turn take care of the organization.
Two of the programs human resource managers are entrusted with are the oversight of Equal Employment Opportunity (EYE) and Affirmative Action Programs (AAA). EYE was established to prohibit discrimination against an applicant regardless of their sex, color, religion, race or national origin and to ensure that everyone has a fair opportunity in competing for promotions and have equal access to training and professional opportunities. AAAS established as a remedy to address past practices of discrimination.
It was designed to “level the playing field. ” Between 1965 and 1 972 President Johnson and President Nixon took steps to ensure AAA was a valid federal goal ND addressed pervasive employment discrimination in earnest. They ensured “No longer would it be sufficient merely to eliminate racial discrimination on paper or in rhetoric; no longer would token integration suffice. Employers and union officials would have to actively promote the training, hiring, and retention of nonwhite applicants and show results to prove it. (Glands, 2011). In the Air Force we ensure these laws are upheld with transparent programs to allow for hiring and recruiting without regard to sex, color, religion, race or national origin. We feel that a diverse Air Force IS ore capable of defending the United States of America and planning for the future. Planning, recruitment, and selection are three more unique programs given to the human resource specialists.
According to House “Human resource planning includes forecasting future labor supply and demand in order to ensure that an organization has access to the knowledge, skills, and abilities it needs at the right times these human capacities are needed. ” (House, 201 2, p. 32). Although planning is extremely important, you must be able to forecast your needs, but if you do not have a good recruitment and selection recess all the planning in the world can be thrown Out the window.
The goal of a recruitment process is to hire the most qualified applicants who have the knowledge, skills, and talents, the organization will need to compete in the market and achieve its desired goals. The selection process is where managers and human resource specialists choose from the pool of highly qualified applicants; trying to select the one that will best fit into the organization and its culture. House describes five common selection methods; resumes and application forms, testing, interviews, reference checks, and honesty tests, medical exams and drug testing. House, 2012).
Two of the most popular methods used in selection are resumes and application forms, and interviews. With application forms they assist in gathering basic information about a potential employee such as contact information, work experience, education, in addition to the applicants’ signature validating the information is true and accurate. Resumes are controlled by the potential employee and may not be completely accurate. Resumes do provide a great method for obtaining large sums of information and a creating a large pool of potential candidates with the basic requirements for the position.
Resumes have become an essential “filter” to trim the pool of candidates to a manageable number. With Resumes and application forms the process could theoretically only be a paper or electronic review without ever meeting with the applicant. With interviews they are normally conducted face to face or in certain circumstances by telephone or over the internet in a streaming video chat. The interview can evaluate the potential employees’ communications skills, interpersonal skills and his or her technical experience and knowledge.
This, according to House, is one Of the most commonly used selection tools in employment. House, 2012). Interviews can be accomplished in a variety of ways: Unstructured interviews, Structured interviews, Situational interviews, Behavior description interviews, or in panel interviews. Each of these forms have their advantages and disadvantages, and the form used is derived from the type of position to be filled and the culture of the organization. In the Air Force we utilize all five of the selection methods outlined by House.
We use application forms, testing, interviews, reference checks, and honesty tests, medical exams and drug testing. We have found this combination of selection methods provides us tit the best candidates with the highest level of resiliency to accomplish the Air Force mission and the highest probability of developing into outstanding Air Force leaders of tomorrow. Human resource development is also a significant part of the Human Resource Managements responsibilities. Once an employee is selected for a position orientation training is required.
Just because an employee has a perfect resume and did well in the interviews does not mean he or she is able to perform the organizational activities effectively. Orientation training helps new employees get acquainted with the operations and processes. In a continuously changing world, training and development are very important to an organization’s ability to adjust to change and adjusting to change is crucial in order to compete in today’s global economy. Training and development is also useful in improving employees’ attitudes, inspiring employees, and energize them when they must perform under pressure. House, 2012). The human resource department and supervisors normally conduct training intended to enhance professional development of personnel. This training can be to correct issues and bring an employee back to standards or it can be signed to grow the employee into a future manager and leader in the organization. These trainings can take on the form of hands on training, computer based training or lectures but the fundamental goal of any training is to help the employee and the organization reach its desired goals. In the Air Force we spend incredible amounts of time, money and resources in developing our Airmen.
We utilize all forms of training and development to help our civilian workforce and our active duty Airmen reach their highest potential. Initially we send our Airmen to eight weeks of basic training to develop their military baring. Basic is followed by technical school training for their vocation, ranging in length depending on the position. These trainings can range from two months to two years for linguists. After technical training Airmen will attend a six week Airmen Leadership School around their third year in service.
Around their eighth year Airmen attend a seven week Noncommissioned Officer Academy course. The next level of Professional Military Education is a nine week Senior Noncommissioned Officer Academy course and the final level of Professional Military Education for Air Force Enlisted is a two week Chief Enlisted Course. These are the primary sources of Air Force Enlisted Professional Military Education but every unit also conducts ongoing Professional Education as well as on the job training to continue to refine their development.
As our Airmen refine their skills along the way they compete for promotion to the next higher grade and if they are promoted they receive increased compensation for the work they do. In the Air Force compensation and benefits are outlined by congress and each individual competes to reach the next higher grade allowing them to receive additional compensation. The benefits do not change except, once oh make Colonel or Chief, then you might get an opportunity to have a better parking spot at base service organizations.
In the civilian world compensation development has become an ever increasing role for the human resource management department. Benefits and compensation packages have a significant impact on human resource management’s ability to attract and keep top talent. According to House “Employees consider benefits when they decide which employer to work for, decide whether to work for a different employer, and decide when to retire. All these decisions depend on the benefits an employer offers, the extent to which the employee aloes these benefits, and how well the benefits compare to the benefits offered by Other employers. The pay structure, job classification, pay grades and pay ranges as well as the appropriate types of pay all play a part in the getting and keeping quality employees. It also has a direct effect in keeping employees motivated to reach the organizations goals. The mandatory by law benefits are workers compensation, social security, COBRA, HAP and FEM.. But these are not what attract the talent that helps organizations meet their goals. It’s the benefits that companies offer above and beyond the mandatory.
The benefit that most employees expect is medical insurance, this tends to be the first thing prospective employees look at when considering a position. Other typical benefits range from: dental plans, paid vacations, sick or personal time off, retirement plans, child care or elderly care and flexible work schedules to mention a few. In addition to all of the above mentioned responsibilities human resource management is also the office of primary responsibility for safety and health issues.
Human resource management ensures employees receive the required Occupational Safety and Health Administration trainings. These raining programs can include training in accident prevention and safety, emergency response, hazardous material, and general safety practices. These and many other types of training can aid in the protection of customers, employees and even the organization in whole. Also under the safety umbrella is the responsibility of conducting the job analysis and job design. To evaluate for safety and health issues that may arise during a procedure.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration has published a document to aid supervisors and human resource managers in accomplishing job hazard analysis for work processes. When conducting a job hazard analysis the objective is to reduce the risk of health or safety to the lowest level possible. All activities have some level of risk but the key is to reduce it by modifying the process and utilizing the proper personal protective equipment for the job to the fullest possible extent. In the Air Force we have several specialty units that work closely with the industrial shops to reduce the potential for safety and health issues.
We have the Abnormalities Office who is responsible for testing and sampling all potential hazards, the public Health Office to aid in training of all personnel on the potential shards, the Safety Office assists with identifying physical hazards and the Aerospace Medicine Committee to evaluate all of the input from the various offices to oversee the Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements of doing all that can be done to keep the work environment as safe as possible. Employee and labor relations in the Air Force are normally referring to the civilian members of our total force. Effective employee relations are the backbone of a successful organization: they preserve its most valuable asset– the human asset–and hence promote the organization’s survival and competitiveness in the market. (Mathis & Jackson, 2007). For a human resource manager to be successful with employee relations they must be knowledgeable in every other area associated human resource management to be effective in handling workplace matters. The term employee relations and labor relations are sometimes used to mean the same thing, but in larger organizations that have both non-union and union workers there are differences.
Labor relations specialists are responsible for dealing with issues regarding the contract, arbitration, grievances, negotiations, work stoppages and strikes. Employee relations specialists typically deal with issues involving employees who are not a part of the bargaining agreement and their issues can range from complaints, performance issues and recognition programs. The purpose of employee and labor relations is to improve and strengthen the employer-employee relationships. In the not so far future, I hope to own and operate a small business or franchise.
Before taking this class was familiar with many of the concepts we have discussed during this course but have to admit, I was oblivious to the depths and breadth of the skills and knowledge required to accomplish the tasks of the human resource manager. The level of experience with prevision, communication skills both written and verbal, and the knowledge required in so many different areas is intimidating when you first begin to study this area of industry. Each of the different aspects of Human Resource Management are like building blocks.
The building blocks complement each other in one form or fashion to make up the complexity of what we today call Human Resource Management. With a bit of luck and hard work I hope my business ventures are successful and I avoid the stumbling blocks identified by study and the “bad experiences” and “bad company practices” expressed by fellow students. Human resource management is the most appropriate name for the position. The ability of an organization to accomplish its strategic goals and objectives depends on having the right people in the right job, at the right time and it is the human resource management who makes that happen.
Human resource management handles employee related issues in the workplace including: planning, recruiting, selection and firing, compensation and benefit packages, performance appraisals, health and safety, training and development, equal employment and affirmative action as well as employee and labor relations issues. The most valuable resource an organization has, is its people, and the human resource manager takes care of this resource so the organization can attain its strategic goals and objectives!