They, in turn, are expected to do their best to enhance the attainment of the company objectives. (Andrea, 1 991) Filipino employees, as we know are considered to be at par best if not the best compared with other workers in the world. They are resourceful, resilient, persistent, and consistent. But in order to understand what motivates the Filipino workers, we must know what they value and what is important to them. Although there are no local theories on Filipino motivation, there is a growing body of research in the Philippine workplace on motivation.
A study Hecatomb, Ay, and Presbyters Jar. (2005) described the average Filipino worker as someone ho values job security, good pay and opportunities for growth when choosing a prospective employer. (Lagan and Hecatomb, 2014) What we need to find out and discover are the factors that fuels the motivation of Filipino workers by understanding some theories and processes of motivation. We need to know how these factors affect their performance at work by also understanding the Filipino attitude, personality, behavior and values. II.
DEFINING MOTIVATION Before we can motivate workers, we first have to understand what motivation really is. The term “motivation” was derived from the Latin word “mover” which means ‘to move”. It is a process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. (Robbins and Judge, 2010) Motivation explains why some people work hard and others do not. The three key elements in our definition are intensity, direction, and persistence. Intensity describes how hard a person tries. An element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation.
However, high intensity is unlikely to lead to favorable job-performance outcomes unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization. Motivation also involves the persistence of behavior over time so that sustained effort can occur even if obstacles or setbacks occur. (Jung, 1978) Ill. THE MEANING OF MOTIVATION IN THE PHILIPPINE SETTING By the term motivation in the Philippine setting, we are primarily concerned with the following: a. What energies Filipino human behavior; b. What directs or channels such Filipino behavior; c. How this Filipino behavior is maintained or sustained.
Each of these three components represents an important factor in our understanding of Filipino human behavior. First, this conceptualization mints to an energetic force within the Filipino individual that “drives” him to behave in certain ways; second, there is the notion of individual “goal- orientation”; and third this way of viewing motivation contains a “system orientation” that considers those forces in the Filipino and in his, environment that exerts an influence upon him either to reinforce the intensity of his drive and the direction of his energy. Andrea, 1991) A. Principles of Human Behavior Behavior is something individuals do, but it is always observable. It is the manifestation of an attitude that controls the behavior. Random and Shells, 2000) The reasons we give for behaving in everyday life help us to understand behavior. Explanations of behavior sometimes invoke concepts such as human nature especially if the behavior seems unchangeable. (Jung, 1978) That is the reason why behavior of Filipinos has something to do with motivation.
According to Michael Ram undo and Susan Shells, authors of the book “The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Motivating People”, attitude controls behavior at the same time behavior also controls attitude. Effective motivators understand that they cannot control attitudes because these are arsenal and confidential and that they are contained within the individual, however, they can control behavior. For example, when we are reviewing for the board exams, my friend believes that she can’t pass because of all the pressures and problems she has been.
She is convinced that she will fail. That attitude causes her to never try to do anything. She feels that to try to do something will surely result in failure. To motivate her, I ignored her attitude and focus on her behavior. I talked to her and convinced her that everything will turn out just fine, that she will surely pass the board exam. I insisted her to join me in my review for an upcoming weekly evaluation in our review center. We help each other in memorizing some formulas and terminologies that are found in our reviewers and took the evaluation.
When the results came out, she got a high score which is higher than my score and she cannot contain her happiness. She even treats me for my lunch. From then on, she always asks me to review with her every evaluation week and we always have that teamwork in memorizing the formulas and terminologies and fortunately, we are grateful that we both passed the board exam. It is assumed that human acquire most of their behaviors through the process of learning about the environment. (lung , 1978) The Philippines has an environment of scarcity that is rural and highly family oriented.
A major difficulty in the determination of human behavior is the fact that the human ability to learn from experiences and modify behavioral tendencies is substantial. Human behavior is recognized as a subject certain constraints or restrictions Of a biological nature. The manner in which we behave is based on a set of core values that fall under “packaging’s Tao”. Hay (shame) is a value that guides socially acceptable behavior. Tang;an; Bibb (debt of gratitude) gives value to mutual reciprocity.
Pakistan (conformity to group) brings about a sense of togetherness and cohesiveness in a group similar to that found in a tightly-knit community (Seller and De Leon, 2001 ) We Filipinos, as a family-oriented individual, we behave as how our parents thought us to, depending on our upbringing. I believe that in every family, we have this certain cultures, beliefs and values which affect our behaviors. This implies that every Filipino worker is motivated by their own family. Most Filipinos work not only to fulfill their basic need, but for the welfare of their loved ones as well.
They tend to obligate their selves to provide for the less fortunate that is why they are motivated to work. B. Filipino Values and Motivation Values are defined “as the constellation of likes, dislikes, viewpoints, shields, inner inclinations, rational and irrational judgments, prejudices, and association patterns that determine a person’s view of the world. ” (Andrea, 1991) The Filipinos, when properly managed, bring out the best in their values: hardwood and consistent industry, social achievement, innovation and retentiveness.
The work values of people, that is, those values for which individuals seek fulfillment in their jobs, have their roots in the basic needs of the individual. The Filipino hierarchy of needs in work setting are the following: The first stage is survival where the person can buy what he needs. The second stage is work stability. The third stage is advancement or promotion at work. The fourth stage is enjoyment in work or feeling of belongingness. And the last stage is esteem or appreciation for work done. Andrea, 1 991) Filipinos take a lot of pride in their work. They like to feel important and know how to contribute to an organization. Responding to a workers drive to comprehend motivates them because it defines their role within an organization. Filipino workers also understand that nothing worthwhile is completely easy. By giving them opportunities to prove their skills, they are motivated to strive in order to prove their worth within the company. The value for “packaging’s Tao” influences social relationships and group identity of Filipinos.
Joann (2001) suggested that for Filipinos, the influential groups are typically family, kin and “Barbuda” (peers). Family, which consists of the father, mother, and unmarried children, is described as the most secured group that the Filipino worker can turn to for support, especially in times of need. Kin, made up of close or distant relatives, the second most important group, provides support when family cannot do so. (Joann, 2001 ) The third group is the “Barbuda”, a collection of peers that serves as another support group outside of the family.
Establishing the “Barbuda” is a way for the Filipino worker to gain social approval and acceptance. (Joann, 2001) In addition to these groups, Filipino workers value he quality of relationship with co-workers and the sense of belonging to an organization (Pang, Hecatomb, Franco, Mercado, & Lopez, 2008) IV. THE MOTIVATION PROCESS In its simplest form, the motivation process begins with a need, an individual’s perception of a deficiency. These needs lead to thought processes that guide an employee?s decision to satisfy them and to follow a particular course of action.
If an employee’s chosen course of action results in the anticipated outcome and reward, the person is likely to be motivated by the prospect of a similar reward to act the same way in the future. Thus, the reward acts as feedback mechanism to help the individual evaluate the consequences of the behavior when considering future actions. ([Online]. Available:http:// www. Zapped. Com/ read. PH? Motivation_the_motivation_process_motivational_theories_challenge sees_of_motivating_employees_human_resource_management=33=31) Core Phases of the Motivational Process The first phase of motivation process is the Need Identification.
The motivation process begins with an unsatisfied need, which creates tension and drives an individual to search for goals that, if attained, will satisfy the need and reduce the tension. The second phase is Searching Ways to satisfy needs. These needs lead to thought processes that guide an employee’s decision to satisfy them and to follow a particular course of action. Once the need is assessed and employee is able to find out the way to satisfy the need the next phase is Selection of Goals. After selecting goals is the next phase which is Employee Performance.
These needs lead to thought processes that guide an employee’s decision to satisfy them and to follow a particular course of action in form of performance. Another phase is the Consequences of Performance Reward/Punishments. If an employee’s chosen course of action results in the anticipated outcome and reward, that person is likely to be motivated. However, if the employee’s action does not result in the expected reward, he or she is unlikely to repeat the behavior. The last phase is the Reassessment of Need Deficiencies.
Once felt need is satisfied through certain rewards in response to performance than employee reassesses any deficiencies and entire process is repeated again. Needs are viewed as energies or triggers of behavioral responses. It refers to deficiencies that an individual experiences at a particular point in time. The motivational process, as interpreted by most theories, is goal directed. (Andrea, 1 991 ) The goals or outcomes an employee seeks are viewed as forces that attract the person. The accomplishment of desirable goals can result in a significant reduction in need deficiencies.
In organizational settings, goals can be positive, such as praise, recognition, pay increase, promotion, and incentive bonus; or negative, such as being passed over for promotion, or reprimanded for poor performance. Negative goals are unattractive and avoided by most employees. V. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES It is very important that we understand basic theories on motivation in order for us to relate and evaluate their applicability in motivating the Filipino workers. Dry. Thomas Andrea categorized the theories of motivation into two which are called the content theories and the process theories.
The content theories focus on the factors within the person that energize, direct, sustain and stop behavior. These theories attempt to determine specific needs which motivate people. The process theories provide a description and analysis of the process of how behavior is energize, directed, sustained and topped. A. CONTENT THEORIES 1. MASON’S NEED HIERARCHY: The earliest and best-known theory of motivation is Abraham Mason’s hierarchy of needs which includes five motivational needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid.
The physiological needs include hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs. The safety needs means security and protection from physical and emotional harm. The third factor in the hierarchy is social needs which include affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. Next is the esteem needs, these are internal factors such as elf-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention. And lastly, the self-actualization needs which includes the drive to become what we are capable of becoming; growth, achieving our potential, and self-fulfillment.
The theory dictates that if you want to motivate someone, you need to understand what level of hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying the needs at or above that level. Some examples of reinforces to match the levels of need of workers in order to motivate them depending on the stage: Physiological Reinforces- none, movie passes, free beer or coffee, lunch, bonuses. Safety/Security Reinforces- insurance, specialization opportunities, fringe benefits seniority lists.
Social Reinforces- recognition in the company newsletter, invitations to coffee or lunch, showing appreciation Self-esteem Reinforces- informal and formal recognition, provision of private offices, solicitations of advice Self- Actualization Reinforces- work on personal projects, challenging job with more achievement possibilities, special assignments. 2. HERBAGE’S TWO FACTOR THEORY Psychologist Frederick Herbert proposed the two-factor theory-?also called titivation-hygiene theory. It states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction.
Two-factor theory distinguishes between: Motivators (e. G. Challenging work, recognition, responsibility) that give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as recognition, achievement, or personal growth, and Hygiene factors (e. G. Status, job security, salary, fringe benefits, work conditions) that do not give positive satisfaction or lead to higher motivation, though dissatisfaction exults from their absence. The term “hygiene” is used in the sense that these are maintenance factors.
These are extrinsic to the work itself, and include aspects such as company policies, supervisory practices, or wages/salary. (Online] Available: http://en. Wisped. Org/wishful-factor_theory) According to Herbert, hygiene factors are what causes dissatisfaction among employees in a workplace. He suggest that the best way to provide motivation for an employee is to offer to satisfy the person’s higher-order needs (recognition, advancement, achievement, responsibility) Herbert Hough it was important to eliminate job dissatisfaction before going onto creating conditions for job satisfaction because it would work against each other. . MISCELLANY’S THEORY OF NEEDS This theory was developed by David McClellan and his associates. The theory focuses on three needs, defined as follows: Need for achievement is the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for power is the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise. Need for affiliation is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. Robbins and Judge, 2011) Miscellany’s research showed that 86% of the population are dominant in one, two, or all three of these three types of motivation.
His subsequent research, published in the 1977 Harvard Business Review article “Power is the Great Motivator”, found that those in top management positions had a high need for power and a low need for affiliation. His research also found that people with a high need for achievement will do best when given projects where they can succeed through their own efforts. Although individuals with a strong need for achievement can be successful lower-level managers, they re usually weeded out before reaching top management positions.
He also found that people with a high need for affiliation may not be good top managers but are generally happier, and can be highly successful in non- leadership roles such as the Foreign Service. ([Online] Available: http:// en. Wisped. Orgiastic/Need_theory) B. PROCESS THEORIES: 1. EXPECTANCY THEORY The term expectancy refers to the perceived probability that a given level of effort will result in a given outcome. For example, “how likely is that high performance (effort) will result in a promotion (outcome)? ‘ (Andrea, 1991 )
This theory was developed by Victor Broom. The theory implies that employees will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe it will lead to a good performance appraisal; that a good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards such as bonuses, salary increases, or promotions; and that the rewards will satisfy the employee’s personal goals. (Robbins and judge, 201 1) 2. EQUITY THEORY The essence of the equity theory is that employees make comparisons of their efforts and rewards with those Of others in similar work situations.
Equity exists when employees perceive that the ratios of their inputs (efforts) o outcomes (rewards) are equivalent to the ratios of other employees. Inequity exists when these ratios are not equivalent. The existence of perceived inequality creates tension that demands the restoration of equity; the greater the inequity, the greater the tension. (Andrea, 1991) VI. CONCLUSION Motivation is our engine, which pushes us to get out of bed every morning to get through the day fulfilling our goals and objectives in life.
Motivation of Filipinos is created, developed and reinforced on a given condition. Based on some factors that were discussed, motivation of Filipinos is affected by their behavior, attitude, personality, and values. We Filipinos are family-oriented that we get to adopt our behavior, attitude, and values from our family and the environment that we grew up in. All behavior is directed toward the satisfaction of needs. People at work are constantly seeking to satisfy not only personal needs but also to provide the needs of family members.
Strong family ties motivate the Filipino workers to take every opportunity that would allow them to earn more. In line with this, they tend to be motivated if they receive proper compensation from work. People behave in ways that they live are in their best interest, they constantly look for payoffs for their efforts. The use of rewards, incentives, and bonuses will motivate them to perform and attain the organization goals. Also the positive values that Filipinos have, has a great contributing factor in their motivation. Filipinos are very social.
They want to belong and feel connected with friends, family, and the people they work with. So it will surely motivate workers if they are enjoying their work because of good relationship with their co-workers. This will not only improve their teamwork but also creates a positive effect on rocker productivity. Filipinos are also known to be a hardworking employee. They take a lot of pride in their work. Therefore, it will surely motivate them to work even harder if they given recognition, promotion, and appreciation for work done and achievements. Roving trainings for employees gives them the confidence to take on more complicated tasks and motivates them to do more. Also, career advancement and job titles provide workers with a source of pride and proof of their development as workers. Creating a career path for workers will motivate them to take on more responsibilities within the organization. We must also take into account the basic theories regarding motivating people. These theories are important and are the foundations in understanding employee motivations.
For the content theories which involves Mascots need hierarchy, Herbage’s two-factors theory and Miscellany’s theory of needs, these are all focused on the needs of employees which motivates them in working hard every day. If we are to apply these theories in organization settings we can surely motivate the Filipino workers through providing them monetary rewards, job enrichment, and alternative work arrangements. Many organizations utilize some type Of incentives to motivate employees because money plays many roles in influencing people in organizations.
Money is usually associated with such reinforces as food, housing, clothing and recreation. Meaning, it is capable of reducing need deficiencies. Job enrichment is a management concept that involves redesigning jobs so they are more challenging to the employee and have less repetitive work. The purpose of job enrichment is to make the position more satisfying to the employee for them to be happier, more productive, and less likely to seek a job elsewhere. An alternative work arrangement refers to any arrangement that differs from the organization’s standard work schedule.
This includes flexible work time, compressed work week, telecommuting, and job sharing. Flexible work time is an arrangement where employees work the standard number of hours in a workday or week, but vary the time of their work hours. Compressed work week is an arrangement where an employee works the standard number of hours in a one or two week period, but compresses those hours into fewer work days. Telecommuting is an arrangement where an employee works either part or al of their workweek from a location other than the standard place of work.