Discuss the view that arbitration in both the developed and the developing world is unsustainable Arbitration is an increase in the proportion of a country’s population living in towns and cities, mainly caused by natural growth and rural-urban migration. Arbitration can pose problems for the cities council, such as housing shortages, waste management and traffic, and if these factors are not correctly sustained, there will be significant problems for these urban areas, such as pollution and increased illness and therefore will be unsustainable.
Sustainability is development that meets the need of he present without compromising the ability Of future generations to meet their own needs and for a city to be sustainable it needs to be capable of providing a good standard of living for its residents and have a neutral effect on the environment. Sustainability becomes increasingly hard to achieve in a growing city, which is especially true for urban areas in developing countries. Developing countries are likely to be experiencing industrialization which is causing mass rural-urban migration.
The massive amounts of overcrowding paired with the large rates of poverty in developing states means the effects f arbitration is worsened, which doesn’t bode well with the fact that the city’s council often don’t have nearly enough money and resources to solve the problem. However, although such situations may seem bleak, developing and developed countries alike can find solutions to sustainable arbitration. Diehard, the biggest slum in Iambi, is an example of a way forward to a sustainable future.
Iambi has urbanites over the past 60 years, this was first triggered by British colonization of India, and has since continued to grow and industrialist to the extent that in 1 971 the population of Iambi as 8 million, whereas now it has grown to a massive 21 million. This has caused massive amounts of problems for Iambi, including the development of one of the world’s biggest slums, Diehard, home to around one million people. Diehard was illegally built on wasteland and rubbish was a big problem, causing bad sanitation and attracting pests, which triggered outbreaks of Diphtheria and Cholera.
However Darcie’s recycling zone is slowly solving this rubbish problem, with 80% of plastic waste is recycled, which, when compared with the UK figure of 23%, shows that Darcie’s anthropometry take on recycling could be the way of providing a sustainable future for this rapidly urbanism city. Nonetheless this recycling system requires many, including children, to sift through the large piles of rubbish, which can lead to the spread of disease.
When the plastics are processed the workers are again at risk as they work in dangerous conditions with toxic substances without protective clothing which could in-turn affect people’s life expectancy. Without the correct help from the Government concerning Darcie’s system, of which there is currently none, it may not be able to antique, due to the impact that it has on its workers. This means that Mamba’s hope of a sustainable future in the face of arbitration would amount to nothing.
Rubbish isn’t just a problem in the developing world, it also a problem in the developed world, as we throw out more and more the problem of where to put all our waste becomes more apparent. England generates about 228 million tones of waste every year of which about half of it is dumped into landfill sites, while Germany only puts about 1 % into landfills. For this to carry on would be unsustainable, meaning the I-J overspent need to find a solution to the amount of waste we generate.
An example of this problem being solved is a IEEE million new recycling plan that has been established in Camaraderie. In this scheme a Mechanical Biological Treatment plant, which sorts through rubbish, removing recyclable materials and then composting the rest. This means that materials that can be recycled that haven’t been separated manually from the other rubbish can be sorted, meaning less rubbish is going to the landfill. This scheme can be viewed as a success for a sustainable future, Camaraderie now tops cantonal leader boards for recycling, as now over 50% of all its waste is recycled.
However, Camaraderie still has to spend over E million a year on sending currently untreatable waste to the landfill, exhibiting that although there are some solutions to the problem, there is still a long way to go before waste will stop being a global problem. Traffic is a major issue for countries around the world regardless of the level of development. MED car ownership is high and is the preferred mode of transport, whilst developing countries have increasing numbers of car owners and need to find ways of accommodating them.
Firebug in Germany, is a prime example of how a developed country can become sustainable. This system is fully integrated into the city in the sense that buses are timetabled to match train times and train stations and bus routes are integrated with cycling and walking routes, which encourages walking or cycling to train stations, meaning it is easy for people living in this city to get around. The Sweatband, which is the railway system has been built so it within mm of 65% of residents homes, meaning that it is easy to get to.
Buses and the railway have priority at traffic lights, ND cyclists are allowed to travel in both directions in 50% of the cities one way streets, meaning that it is quicker for people to use alternative travel over cars. Together these have encouraged the use of sustainable transport over car use and have reduced the proportion of journeys traveled by car from 38% to 32%, and the distance each person traveled by car declined by 7%; which consequently led to carbon dioxide emissions per capita falling by 13% between 1992 to 2005.
Not only is this socially and environmentally sustainable, it is also financially stable, as passenger fares cover 90% of the running costs. All in all this system seems completely sustainable, showing that there are solutions to the problem of transport in urban areas. There are also SUccess stories regarding sustainable transport in developing countries. Mexico City has seen its roadways grow beyond capacity to more than four million vehicles, which coincided with the massive arbitration of Mexico City, which currently holds 22. % of Mexico population. In 2011 an IBM survey on commuting in 20 cities resulted in Mexico City being the most painful city to commute in and gridlock in the city centre costs Mexico 2. 5 billion USED every year. Mexico City’s traffic problem worsens the pressing issue of air pollution which currently attributes to over 1 0,000 deaths per year due to the emissions produced by the cars. However there have been many steps taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to improve the quality of urban life in Mexico City. How No Circular’ is an example of programmer the government have set up to reduce the traffic problem which prohibits the use of vehicles based on the last number on their license plates on certain days, for example license plates ending in 5 are not allowed to use their cars on Monday and the first Saturday of every month. However this programmer is unpopular among Mexico City’s inhabitants and often proves inefficient and therefore ineffective.
One of the most effective management techniques is the Metro Bus, opened in 2005, which run at high frequencies and hold up to 250,000 passengers per day. This has proved massively popular as it has bus lanes which significantly reduces traffic time by a third. This also has massively reduced the amount of cars on the roads and therefore has reduced carbon dioxide emissions by 35,000 tones annually. This, coupled with the cities many initiatives to encourage cycling and walking has led to the
Mexico City being awarded a prize for sustainable transport in 201 3 This shows that developing countries are just as able to find sustainable solutions to problems caused by arbitration as developed countries are. Overall it is evident that both developing and developed cities can find solutions to problems caused by arbitration. However it is clear that solutions to transport problems are a lot more easily solved and a lot more easily sustained, as evident from both of my case studies, whereas waste management is a global problem which still needs a fully sustainable solution.