The maximum score a student can get is 8/ 10). The individual assignment must have a length between 6 and 8 pages approximately (without including cover, index or appendix -if there is any). The assignment has to be done in this Word document. In order to make the correction easier, please, do not write the answers in bolds, and it will be easier to distinguish between them and the activities statements. On the other hand, the assignment has to fulfill the rules of presentation and edition, as for quotes and bibliographical references which are detailed in the Study Guide.
Also, it has to be submitted following the procedure specified in the Study Guide. Sending it to the tutors e-mail is not permitted. Both members of the group have to send the assignment. In addition to this, it is very important to read the assessment criteria, which can be found in the Study Guide. The assignment mark is 70% of the final mark. MASTER IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE Approaches to Languages in the Classroom Context Names and surnames: Arena Marital Bacteria Lopez Norris Amelia Chic Aquavit Cecilia M¶Inca Far;n Ramose Lug Linda Unloaded Cambrian Logins: ECFPMTFL904229
COFPMLAEELE674258 BOFPCTFL1573159 EXPLICIT 524154 Group: Professor: Date: FUNNIER 2014-02 MEJIA SASSAFRAS MASHED, Ph. D. May 31st, 2015 Task 1 According to Beckman (1998), SAL research tends to concern itself with the picture and description about the development of second language ability, focusing on interlingua, as a language with conventions on its own and on the processes and aspects involved in the development of an interlingua. Therefore, the sentences written by the student in his essay shows a linguistic process under construction, where students categorize what they hear and hen rule those categories in different situations.
Some situations lead to a harmful personalization of the target language and then errors appear. Students start to use their rules in contexts they should not apply. But errors are a sign of the learner’s hypothesis testing, which at a final stage lead to the formation of the correct form and its underlying rule. Thus, errors were considered as part of the learner’s language at every stage. (Strains, 201 3) Analyzing the sentences provided in this task and the background language it is clear that the learner has acquired target language knowledge and he is applying it.
At the same timer one can notice he is using incorrectly the grammatical forms of the Al , writing improper sentences. Also, these errors can also be the result of the transfer of training, in other words, whenever the effects of prior learning influence the performance of a later activity (Sahara, 2013). In the sentences provided, the learner uses verbs and adjectives instead of nouns. As a result, an alteration Of what they have already learned. Therefore, when learning nouns and their plural forms in English, teachers have to emphasize the use of the -inning form.
In sentence 1, the correct word is port, and in sentence 3, is school, including the preposition to after the verb. Finally, in sentence 8, the correct word is conflict and here the student is using a noun + inning to form a new noun. The English gerund ‘-inning form as well as the Cantonese gene and juju forms were learned through an intra-lingual approach without any correspondence. Thus, the generalization across both languages facilitates the use of this. So, one can conclude that a learner of a new language draws parallels with items in his first language.
Translating an item from one language to another, and ‘over-generalizing’ the structure or he syntax to its counterpart in the other language is a common process in Simi Tenuous language acquisition. The transfer of training is showed within the sentences: 2) America refused continual supported our military request, 5) After finished my college studied, I went to my country, and 6) Doctors have the right to removed it from him. Words in bold show some mistakes related to the order language was introduced to the students.
They might have mastered the past tense of regular verbs before, and later make a transfer of knowledge using it in the new scenery. The students use verb + De hen it does not work. Errors in the sentence 4) About two hours driving eastern from Bangkok, and 7) There is a night for asleep, can be derived from visualization in interlingua. According to Ford (2014), visualization refers to the process whereby a learner’s IL development stops some way short of target language norms, and sometimes learners feel more comfortable using similar Al words.
Therefore, lexical use plays a main role in SAL since lexicon is the base to communicate. Learning/teaching experiences claim that lexical use is one of the problems the learners face, The difficulties that affect lexical SE are associated to the learning context, intrinsic motivation, social and cultural factors as well as the language learners exposition to the target language. To achieve communication in L 2, learners use different learning strategies that consist in “particular approaches or techniques that learners employ to try to learn in an LA” (Tests, D¶Ernie & Schmitt, 2006).
In these cases, learners came up with a con dive strategy about processing information and how learners structure it, for instance: analyzing, summarizing and comparing first and foreign languages. Every single student as his own learning styles, thus as a component of the cognitive strategy, learners use different techniques like: memorization, literal translation or look for the word in dictionaries. The field of the communication strategies can reveal insights along with the ways interlingua changes as language learners become proficient in the target language.
A research focused on communication strategies used by two groups of Spanish-speaking students (intermediate and advanced) was carried out through two different tasks by Alfalfa in 2004. The first consisted in answering questions and the other in a ole play; both of them were used to elicit information from the students. Data was collected twice in different times, one at the beginning and then three months later. The English level, the task, and the time were the independent variables while transfer, personalization, and task-influenced were the dependent variables.
The research results showed that the not structured task elicited more transfer strategies from both groups, and additionally there was a considerable interaction between time and English level regarding to the use of task-influenced strategies (L afford, 2004). The ATA suggests that students should go through an intensive period of task- influenced strategies which peaks and drops off as they become more proficient. The process of learning an LA is not a linear function but fragmented and marked by a mixture scenery of progress and stagnation.
Concerning the third exercise, it is important to notice the context in which learners learn a new language. It plays an important role in their language proficiency. Also, the way learners learn a second language deals with different factors, thus it is important to be focused on the language learners are exposed to, and language they produce. In this way, one can understand learners’ interlingua. When the context changes the nature of strategies change as well.
Nevertheless, children and adults most of the time fail using strategic behaviors and there are five reasons teachers should consider to avoid the failure: a) poor cognitive monitoring, b) primitive routines, c) a meager knowledge base, d) attributions and classroom goals (that do not support strategy use), and (e) minimal transfer (Garner, 1990). Final del formulaic Task 2 Principia del formulaic This task focuses on the English grammar structures, especially the verb instigation in different tenses in order to make learners aware of how language is constructed and how to produce accurate sentences.
Learning grammar is considered one of the most difficult aspects in the study of a foreign language which is defined as “the rules that govern how a language’s sentences are formed” (Thornburg, 2007). English according to Close (1 982), cited by Dickens and Woods (1988) grammar has been traditionally viewed as “a system of syntax that decides the order and patterns in which words are arranged in sentences”. Task 2 displays how grammar is emphasized in this mind of test, the grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugation according to the tenses.
They show the time of an action or state of being as shown by a verb, which ending is changed (conjugated) to show what time it is referring to. The first item evaluates the simple present third person, adding the (s) to the end of the verb in affirmative statements, while the second item shows the past form of the irregular verb (to eat) like the fourth item of the verb (to fall). The third item demonstrates another level of the grammatical rules, which asks to the learner to apply the future unreal condition where the past article of the verbs using auxiliaries and modal verbs are necessary.
Larsen-Freeman explains grammarian as “the fifth skill” (beside listening, speaking, reading, and writing), the ability to use grammar structures accurately, meaningfully, and appropriately. The order presented by Larsen- Freeman fit with respect to acquisition of grammatical morphemes, which is focused in this analysis task. Larsen-Freeman order of grammatical morpheme acquisition for learners Of English in a structured, classroom setting is as follows: copula, auxiliary, third person singular, -inning, regular past, regular past, article, long plural, short plural and possessive.
Concerning with the above mentioned, it demonstrates the importance of the study of different levels of foreign language grammar. Then, student C appears to be the most advanced learner because of his responses have a greater approximation according to the correct and logic of grammatical rules, like the correct responses given. He elaborated an awareness of language both as a formal, grammatical system and as mean of communication even though, the third response displays an error in the verb form of the past participle.
This learner shows a great advantage in the use of he grammar rules which reflects the cognitive, affective and social factors in order to obtain the knowledge besides the fact of living in the country where the target language is spoken. Finally, this learner displays aptitude to learn languages as well. Moreover, it seems that learner C is allowed to form generalizations about grammatical rules after oral and written practice of examples given in class. Thus acquisition may occur quickly and after little exposure with an inductive approach.
However, other learners are too easily confused if the grammatical rules are not presented directly before a practice. Those learners benefit more from the deductive approach, in which the teacher presents the grammatical patterns and then the learner is given ample time to become familiar with them as learner D, who shows a grammars weaknesses in his/her responses. Sometimes, there is lack of general grammar rules and so students tend to use simple grammar constructions instead of more complex.
In order to expand this situation as teacher we should consider to those who writing in a foreign language is often easier than speaking for those who have learned grammar explicitly. It is important to focus on the background and the reticular features as learners. For example the background of student C who could have different weaknesses such as behavior, social and economic factors, and the form Of instruction that received before.
It is also important to consider the learner aptitude such as a limited capacity for processing the grammar rules; even though, both learners had the same instructions, the second one cannot have a conscious pattern about the grammar rules of the target language for using it spontaneously, however the instructors could have used a variety of strategies to facilitate comprehension and support fore taking the test. Teachers can be able to correct errors in order to work on improving them by students.
At the same time as Koala and Swain (1994) have found that adolescents are able to benefit from pair work activities in which students work together so that we can consider many other factors about teaching grammar rules especially to adolescents who can suffer the visualization of grammar rules early; i. E. Teachers have to find good approaches, strategies and techniques to teach grammar in a simple way up to a point, the acquisition of a grammar should take place naturally and inevitably, through roving learners experience appropriate opportunities for hearing and using the second language.
Taking into account that generalization is used in many learning situations, learners make rules to predict how different items will behave about factors attending to the structure of a language related to formal patterns such as grammar in this case. For example learners categorize the rules they learn that the competence hypothesis will facilitate the identification of generalizations about grammatical linguistic knowledge phenomena that are prominent characteristics of language use. Generalization of grammar trustees is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages.
Regards to the limitations, the tendency is to follow grammar rules from simple grammar structures to complex. It results in decreased process from the first to the third item. Final del formulaic Task Principia del formulator This speaker presents problems to express correctly negative expressions in English. A clear interference is obvious between the mother language and the target language. He presents grammatical mistakes what demonstrates the absence of internalizing the complex structures of the English denial; for hat reason he applies to this one the rules of his Al .
The learning of the negative English ‘ s structure results very complicated for a Spanish learner, due to the fact that it is a process very different from his mother language. Learners need to bear in mind a series of grammatical aspects related to the lexical and auxiliary verbs that obstruct his learning (l don’t like it/it was not mines / have was not running), while in Spanish the particle “no” is always placed in front of the verb (no squire/no Estes/no era).
According to the stages of learning of the denial in English, exposed by Alonso (2002), this individual is in the first stage “No+V”, in which the apprentice uses “no” before the verb, as it is done by a child whose first language is English; for example: “No write”, No like it. ” and also with nouns (no cheese, no money), adverbs (no now, and maybe no good for me). In this stage the learner has in mind that negation in English is like negation in Spanish, for that reason, he produces utterances like that.
Also, the student use simplification in his speech, maybe, as Richard (1971) said: because he “attempts to reduce the complexity of the language system” example: 1 . No write 2. No in town. . No cheese. In the first example he omits the pronoun (l) and the auxiliary (don ‘ t); in the second one, he reduces the pronoun, the verb “to be” and the article “the”. The third one shows that he ignores the pronoun, the auxiliary and the verb. It is clear that, besides the fact we do not have a clear context the context of use of these expressions, this simplification does not affect the meaning of the expression.