Sociological Perspectives Assignment essay

PA Explain how demographic data is used in Health and Social Care service revision: Demographic data can be used in various areas within Health and Social Care such as it can be used to identify needs, plan services that need to be provided and assess how effective current methods in place are and use the data to develop future polices and methods. It is important that the services provided within these two areas are appropriate to the needs of the population.

When using demographic data within hospitals health professionals can use demographic data to determine what funds are needed for a maternity ward to ensure that they have significant facilities available ND that they have adequate funding to ensure that they are not spending too much or too less in that department. It will also allow them to identify what staff and how many midwives they will need within a delivery suite, so again to ensure that they have the correct amount of staff within that area.

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Also schools are able to use this data and apply the data to that environment because they will need to determine how many students they can intake and how many children are needing to go into education, which will enable them to determine whether they need to make schools larger or build more in arioso areas, but similar to a hospital they will need to identify how many teachers they will need to employ.

MM Assess the impact of demographic changes within their home country: With this demographic data it is impacting on the INS as if birth rates decrease that will then mean that the demand for midwives will decrease, meaning the INS will have to make job cuts. This will then mean that individuals will be out of work and may not be able to transfer into another hospital and may have to have temporary time off from work due to birth rates being down, which then means they may have to apply for benefits until vacancy becomes available, which will put strain on the benefit system.

Also if birth rates decrease this will mean that when universities will lower their intakes per year as the demand for midwives has decreased. If birth rates were to increase this will mean that midwives will be higher in demand. Although, this will mean if they are in such high demand then the current midwives struggle to provide new wont be able to give individuals the one on one care they need It will be a higher strain on INS if birth rates increase, meaning cuts may have to be made in different areas to support the maternity suites.

Also if birth rates increases this will mean there will be a higher demand on education and there will also be a need for larger housing which will be required to accommodate larger families. If birth rates increase then this will increase the amount of child benefit issued to families. This will then affect the UK as a whole meaning there may have to be cut backs in different areas, but also tax will be increased so they are able to issue the benefit to families, which could then progress onto affecting individuals Income.

With birth rates decreasing this means that the continuous strain and lack off lath care professionals will mean that the time that is needed to care for patients will be available and they are able to provide patients with the one- to-one care they need. There is also a low quantity of hospital beds available for in patients, so again if these rates decrease this will increase the number of beds that are available and patients will be able to be treated quickly and prevent such long waits on lists for patients.

In regards to maternity wards this will enable midwifes to have one-to-one discussions with new mothers and any concerns they are having and allowing the standards of care to rise. Although, with these rates decreasing this will mean that less job opportunities will become available and a decrease in university spaces available for new midwives as there is not such a demand for them, but also if the birth rates continue to decrease this will also result in maternity departments to close. With this happening this will mean that many individuals will not be employed.

PA Explain potential links between social inequalities and the health of the population: Poverty: Poverty has been identified as a social inequality that is contributing to affecting individual’s health. Poverty is difficult to define and there is no single definition for it, although three different forms of poverty have been identified, which include: Absolute poverty: Absolute poverty is defined when an individual is deprived of their basic human needs, which includes food, water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter and education.

Secondary poverty: Secondary poverty is defined as individuals who have significant income but do not use their income on their basic needs. Relative poverty: Relative poverty is defined as the standard of living in which people lack the minimum amount of income deed in order to maintain the average standard of living in the society in which they live.

Absolute poverty affects particular groups who are more at risk of suffering from poverty, such as: unskilled workers Older people Single parents Long-term unemployed People on long-term benefits People on low incomes People with disabilities This is because it can be linked with a low income, a poor lifestyle, poor housing, unemployment and ill health, which are factors that are often linked with poverty. Having a low income will affect an individual’s health because they are less likely to be consuming balanced meals and more likely to be hosing unhealthy lifestyle choices such as drinking alcohol, misusing drugs and smoking.

If an individual is living within a poor housing environment then this can then progress onto affecting an individual’s health. Examples of this would include if the house were damp through out then this would progress onto causing respiratory problems, respiratory infections, allergies or asthma. Social class: Social class is a term used to categories individuals. To put an individual on social class this will be based on economic factors.

It is mainly based on your occupation, but it is also based on what position you have if you are employed, your income, if you rent or own a property and if you’re self- employed or employed by a company. There are various social classes that are used to categories individuals, which includes: Class 1: Class one consists of higher managerial and professional occupations. Class 2: Lower managerial and professional occupations. Class 3: Intermediate occupations. Class 4: Small company employers and the self-employed.

Class 5: technical and lower supervisory occupations. Class 6: Semi-routine occupations. Class 7: Routine occupations. Class 8: Long term unemployment and never been employed. MM Assess the impact of social inequalities on the health of one group in society: Teenage pregnancy: Teenage pregnancy rates were first measured in 1969 and the rates of teenage pregnancies in 2015 are the lowest they have ever been within England. In 2001 there was a total 38,461 pregnancies in total and in 2009, there was 35,966 teenage pregnancies, which shows there was a decrease of 7. %. In 201 2 they estimated there would be 27,834 pregnancies, compared to 2013 where they estimated 24,306 pregnancies, which shows there was a 13% decrease in estimations. Overall in 2013 there were a total of 30,790, impaired with 33,620 the previous year in 2012, which shows a decrease of Within Derbyshire in 2001 , within Derbyshire for females under the age 18 there were 468 teenage pregnancies. In 2004-2006 there were a total of teenagers aged between 15 and 18 with a population of 5,573, with a total of 225 teenagers becoming pregnant.

In 2004 a total of 82 teenagers became pregnant out of a total of 1,878 teenagers. In 2005 there was a total of 74 pregnancies out of a total of 1 ,848 teenage girls. In 2006 there was a total of 69 teenage pregnancies out Of a total Of 1,847 teenagers. Gradually over time the rates of teenage pregnancy has decreased. In 2009, there were slightly more teenage pregnancies, with a total of 477. In 201 2 there was a total of 477 teenage pregnancies, the same rates as 2009 and in 2013 there were a total of 270 teenage pregnancies.

Overall the statistics show that both within the UK and Derbyshire each year the teenage pregnancy rates are gradually decreasing. Think that these rates have decreased because individuals are using contraceptive methods more often. In 2009 65% of teenage girls between the ages of 16-19 in the I-J said hey were using some for of contraception and in in 201 0 it was recorded that approximately 4 million people using contraception. Observing the statistics it shows that the rates are continuously decreasing, which could also be because of raised awareness about contraception by introducing sex education.

By using these workshops it is educating young teenagers and giving them an understanding of how to have safe sex at a young age by provided demonstrations on how to apply a condom, but also the consequences and implications it can have on their lives if they do not have safe sex. Also there are various contraceptive methods that have been developed since birth rates were first measures. To prevent teenagers from becoming pregnant at a young age, which includes contraceptive methods such as: Contraceptive Pill coil Implant Condoms This graph was conducted in 201 3 and shows the number of teenage pregnancies between social classes.

This graph shows the rates of teenage pregnancy and that it can be linked with social class. This graph shows that teenage pregnancy rates occur more often within lower social classes rather than a higher social class. Feel this is because a teenager from a lower social lass is more likely to become pregnant from their family background. This is due to how they have been brought up within society and what aspects their parents have taught them.

To try and decrease these rates further health care providers could ensure that when teenagers reach the age of 12, that they have had a consultation about contraception and using at least one of the contraceptive methods. Health care providers could also ensure that all young teenagers have access and are aware of the support and information that is available, which could encourage teenagers to become aware, which could increase the rates of managers having safer sex. They could also promote the C card by raising awareness about it, which could then mean that more teenagers will use it if it is advertised and promoted.

Overall becoming a teenage parent at a young age will affect their health. The birth itself may not affect them but the social inequalities linked with it will. This is because a young teenage mother is less likely to finish their education meaning they could possibly leave with no qualifications. Having a baby at such a young age and leaving school with no qualifications will also make it ore difficult to progress onto further education such as college courses and if they choose to do so obtaining 5 Geese’s at C grade or above are common requirements from colleges, as are employers.

Having no qualifications means that they are less likely to be able to obtain a well-paid occupation, which would potentially lead to them relying on the benefit system, which would also mean they would be categorized in a lower social class. This would mean that they are more at risk of living in poverty and also living the effects Of poverty such as poor lifestyle, poor housing and a low income. The effects of poverty will affect an individual because having a low income will mean they will struggle to provide themselves and their baby with the basic needs, which will reflect on their health.