This process is called spectroscopy which was discovered in 1859 Gustavo Robert Kerchief and Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (“Zoom Astronomy”, 2015). Spectroscopy was first used to study celestial objects in 1863 by William Huggins. By using this process he discovered the Sun and most stars are primarily composed of hydrogen gases. Telescopes render the methods to accumulate, explore, and evaluate electromagnetic radiation from inaccessible realms of the universe. The various models of telescopes are used for distinguishing aspects of the scale which include visible light, adjacent infrared.
Planets, stars, gaseous nebulae, and foreign galaxies emerge uniquely whenever they are observed in every distinctive part of the spectrum. This is due to numerous forms of radiation that are susceptible to alterations in the environment and chemistry of the objects. Considering a subject can be distinguished by a distinctive wavelength presents the astronomer with fundamental evidence which also includes the temperature of the object. There are multiple types of telescopes: optical telescopes which collect visible light, while other telescopes such as the radio telescopes can elect radiation, which is invisible to the human eye.
Given that Galileo pioneered one of the firs optical telescopes in the 17th century, considerably more potent technology has been engineered, with the Hubble Space Telescope at the forefront of space exploration and now the new Gemini Telescopes. In 1932, Karl Jansen designed radio telescopes, which have since developed into establishments like the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (“Astronomy Online”, 2013). We measure a star’s apparent brightness based on its luminosity and its distance from us. This measurement is done by utilizing the Inverse Square Law for Light.
Simply put, the farther away you get from the object the dimmer it will appear. H-R Diagram Danish astronomer Jejuna Heartstrings and American astronomer Henry Norris Russell noticed the relationship Of the stars surface temperature and its luminosity. They used this relationship to develop a type of graph to identify where each star is in its lifestyle. The graph is essentially based on two properties of the stars. One property is the star’s surface temperature, also known as its spectral type. The surface temperature is plotted on the x- axis or horizontally.
Bluer stars have cooler temperatures, while redder stars are hotter. We are able to determine a star’s surface temperature by examining the wavelength of its peak intensity otherwise known as Win’s law. The second property of the star graphed on the H-R diagram is the stars luminosity or amount of energy radiating from it. This property is plotted on the y-axis or vertically and usually based on a ratio-scale with the reference point being the Sun. By graphing these two properties of stars we are able to map out where most stars are in their lifestyle.
Lifestyle of the Sun The Sun which is a low mass star is approximately 5 billion years old and halfway through its lifestyle. Its entire lifestyle is made up of the following stages: protestor, main sequence, red giant, and lastly a white dwarf. These stages are not unlike those of a humans lifestyle. The Sun started out as a cloud of dust and hydrogen, helium, and carbon gases. This is also known as a nebula. The cloud clumped together attracting atoms towards its center and the gases directed the heat and light energy away from the center called.
This recess takes millions of years to occur, but with the balance of gravity pushing atoms towards the nebula’s center and gas pressure being pushed away from its center nuclear fusion was able to occur and the Sun was born. The Sun is now a protestor. The Main Sequence is the next stage of the Sun’s lifestyle. During this stage, the Sun is slowly contracting while its centers temperature is gradually rising and generating energy through its hydrogen burn is radiating away from its center. Once the hydrogen fuel is exhausted the Sun will begin its next stage.
Since the Sun is only halfway through its lifestyle of approximately 1 0 billion years this stage is many billions of years away. This next stage in the case of the Sun will be known as the Red Giant. Through this phase, the Sun having burned all of its hydrogen and needing to maintain its balance between its internal temperature and gas pressure will begin utilizing helium. As the helium burns, a rapid reaction will occur in the shell of the Sun expanding its outer layers to help the mass of heat escape. Eventually the helium gas will be depleted and the carbon burning stage will begin.
It is anticipated that “helium will run out after about 100 million years of burning’ (Bennett, Donahue, & Schneider, 2012, ). During the last stage of the Sun’s lifestyle, the Sun’s core will continue to constrict burning its carbon gases to maintain balance. This process will happen over a short period of time compared to the other stages and the Sun will eventually being to produce iron. As iron is produced the Sun will begin shedding its outer layers, exposing its core. The Sun’s core will be quite hot and glow as planetary nebula. As its core cools the planetary nebula will no longer be visible and eave the sun as a white dwarf.