Safeguarding in Health and Social Care essay

Explain why individuals such as children, the elderly, people with learning difficulties and other groups may be vulnerable to abuse and/or harm to self and others. Introduction, then understanding the Staffordshire,the case study. What is abuse, and the risk factors. Someone who needs a services by the reason of mental or other disability. Not having the capacity to make decisions, communication condition,when people don’t communicate their needs, when people thinks it normal,not thing new. If you deepened on someone and they are not willing to. Living with family with inutile problems. Enlivens, if you don’t have someone to help make people vulnerable to abuse,like bullying. Age and age related illness. Abuse is the violation of an individuals human and civil rights by any other person or persons. Abuse Of a vulnerable person may consist of a single act or repeated acts. It may occur as a result of a failure to undertake action or appropriate care tasks. It may be an act of neglect or an omission to act, or it may occur where a vulnerable person is persuaded to enter into a financial or sexual transaction to which they have not, or cannot, consent.

Abuse can occur in any relationship and ay result in significant harm to, or exploitation of, the individual. There are several ways in which people can be abused. However, the fundamental cornrow denominator is the use of power and control by one individual to affect the well-being and status of another individual. There are common effects or conditions that may occur following the abuse that took place is such institution, like Shuffleboards Hospital. Sometimes these responses can be delayed for months or even years after the event.

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Physical symptom is an emotional abuse that certainly affects the brain but it also causes certain physical disorders. The symptoms of physical disorder caused due to emotional abuse are eating and sleeping disturbances, sexual dysfunction, low energy and chronic, unexplained pain. The emotional effect of abuse on a person’s emotion shows signs and symptoms of depression, spontaneous crying despair and hopelessness, anxiety, panic attacks, fearfulness, compulsive and obsessive behaviors, feeling out of control, irritability, angry and resentment, emotional numbness and withdrawal from normal routine and relationships.

Cognitive symptoms of emotional abuse related to a person’s cognition are memory lapses, especially about the trauma, difficulty n making decisions, decreased ability to concentrate and finally feeling distracted. Elderly abuse is often defined as a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to a person who is age sixty or older. Social isolation and mental impairment are two important reasons which make the elderly more vulnerable to abuse.

With elderly abuse,usually occurs in one of the two locations, either in the elders home or in a nursing home and other long-term facility. Therefore the perpetrators of elderly abuse may be a professional caregiver, relative, spouse, doctors, bakers, lawyers or even strangers. Elder abuse is a growing concern these days. It is, however, an extremely complex act; elder abuse is a combination of many factors, from psychological economic as well as the mental and physical conditions of the victim and the abuser. These factors do not usually operate in isolation.

Instead, they tend to function as complex dimensions, interacting in ways uniquely dependent on the victim, perpetrator and the situation. However, a few theories have emerged that address the cause of elder abuse. The Learning theory or transliteration violence theory is based on the belief that violence is a learned behavior pattern. A child considers violence as an acceptable reaction to stress and then internalizes this as an acceptable behavior Conclusion We can conclude that irrespective of the type of abuse inflicted on an individual, the suffering is unbearable and cruel.

All the mentioned abuses affect not only the body but they scar victim’s mind and the soul as well. The effects of these abuses lead to the destruction of a person from outside as well as from within. As per our case scenario, We came to realize that humans re not the only ones being abused. Speechless and innocent children,venerable people were the victim to this act of cruelty, by the hands of a number of Staffs and Management of the Hospital. Legerdemain’s the different types of abuse, their signs and symptoms as well as their causes etc, has helped me in understanding the real meaning and concepts related to abuse.

This understanding will now help up identify an abuse if at all, come across one. Once the abuse has been identified it will then help me in taking actions in order to prevent it. Also, after having researched on Staffordshire Hospital abuse I have realized the amount of pain and suffering the service user have to go through just for the pleasures of the staffs. Thus by knowing about the different abuses happening in our surroundings and by taking appropriate actions in order to prevent it from happening and can make Staffordshire Hospitals better place to care for service users.

Conclusion well as from within. As per our case scenario, we came to realize that humans of a number of Staffs and Management of the Hospital. Understanding the different types Of abuse, their signs and symptoms as well as their causes etc, Hospital abuse have realized the amount of pain and suffering the service Staffordshire Hospitals better place to care for service users. Abuse is the infringement of an individual’s human and civil rights by another individual or persons. The following is the definition of abuse in The Protection for Persons in Care Act (APPC).

In this statement, “abuse” is defined as mistreatment, whether physical, sexual, mental, emotional, and financial or a combination of any of them, that is reasonably likely to cause death or that causes or is reasonably likely to cause serious physical or psychological harm to a person, r significant loss to the person’s property. Abuse of a person often includes behavior that is abusive in one or more of the categories outlined on the following pages. In particular, the majority of people who are experiencing abuse Of any kind will also be experiencing psychological abuse.

General indicators of an abusive relationship often include the misuse of power by one person over another and are most likely to be found in situations where one person has power over another. For example, where one person is dependent on another for their physical care or due to power relationships in society (such as, between a professional worker and a service user, a man and a woman or a person of the dominant race/culture and a person of an ethnic minority). Abuse may consist of a single act or repeated acts.

It may be physical, verbal or psychological, it may be an act of neglect or an omission to act or it may occur when a vulnerable person is persuaded to enter into a financial or sexual transaction to which he or she had not consented or cannot consent. Abuse can occur in any relationship and may result in significant harm to or exploitation of the person subjected to it. It is essential o be alert to signals or non-verbal communication or challenging behavior, and to be aware this could indicate unacceptable practice that is being deliberately hidden or denied.

There are different forms of abuse and these are described below: ;Physical abuse Physical abuse is non-accidental pain or injury inflicted on a service user by a health or care worker. This can include hitting, shaking, rough treatment or inappropriate use of restraint. The health and social care professions do not permit any physical contact that is not necessary for administering a treatment, or for which the service user has not even their consent. ;Sexual abuse Sexual abuse usually refers to any sexual activity that is unwanted and is inflicted by physical force or other methods of coercion such as threats or intimidation.

Sexual contact between workers and service users is forbidden in the health and social care environment because it could be harmful to the therapeutic value of the treatment being given and is likely to be based on the exploitation of a service user’s vulnerability and the power imbalance inherent in the relationship. ;Financial abuse Financial abuse covers any way that a health or social care worker unlawfully sees his or her relationship with the service user for financial gain.

This includes, but is not limited to: charging a fee for services that should be free of charge charging for services that are not in the service user’s best interest unnecessarily prolonging treatment for financial gain allowancing agreed fees after a treatment has begun receiving financial inducements for recommending other products or services to the service user theft from the service user (including items being ‘borrowed’ and not returned). ;Psychological/emotional abuse This refers to the psychological or emotional exploitation of the relationship teens a health or social care worker and a service user.

It is the most difficult form of abuse to define because it relies heavily on individuals’ feelings and perceptions rather than on physical or tangible evidence. The following principles can be useful in identifying psychological or emotional abuse. Oils the health or social care worker disclosing sensitive, personal information to the service user? Oils the worker making psychological or emotional demands on the service user that do not appear to contribute to a therapeutic process? Oils the worker trying to make contact with the service seer outside the agreed working environment? Does the worker appear to be trying to humiliate or belittle the service user? If the answer to any of these questions is ‘yes’, the worker may be guilty of psychological or emotional ;Neglect Neglect cuts across all the areas described in this section. Abuse is usually defined as harmful action; neglect can be understood as a form of abuse by failing to act. If a health or social care worker has failed to do something within their professional remit that is in the service user’s best interest, this is neglect.

Examples Of neglect include, but are not limited to: Failing to act on a service user’s concerns about their physical or mental health failing to act on a service user’s complaints about the care or treatment they are receiving from others, or on the signs of ill-treatment or neglect Failing to act on indications that a service user’s health, or ability to care for him or herself, is deteriorating failing to act on a service user’s expressions of extreme mental distress, such as suicidal feelings. 1. Factors leading to abuse Considering risk factors in abuse requires both knowledge about risk factors and the exercise of professional judgment when assessing a particular tuition. The information provided below can be used as guidance to critical awareness of professional judgment and victim characteristics. Some factors may increase vulnerability to abuse e. G. : social isolation – those who are abused usually have fewer social contacts than those who are not abused. The victim has an illness such as dementia, which may affect his or her intellect, memory or physical functions and cause unpredictable psychological or physical behavior. The victim is compliant and may not know that they are being abused or exploited, e. G. Some people with learning disabilities. The victim has communication difficulties as a result of hearing, visual or speech difficulties. They cannot disclose verbally. The victim will not be believed if they disclose as seen in the “Panorama Undercover Care, when Simon, a young girl was not believed by her parents that she was being abused at the care homo?’. The victim has behavioral problems or major changes in personality, which result in repetitive behavior, wandering or aggression. The victim demands or needs a level of care beyond the capacity of the career. 1. 3 analyses the impact of social and cultural factors on different types of buses such as physical, emotional, sexual and alcohol and drug abuse. There are several different types of abuse and each type affects people differently. There is child abuse and spousal abuse, but there is also physical and mental abuse. This paper will go over each type of abuse, how the abuse affects the person, how people can recover from abuse, and just some general information To start off I will discuss spousal abuse and its affect on people.

Surveys in the CSS and Canada have shown each year about 12 percent of all spouses push, grab, shove or slap their partner and one to three percent use more extreme lenience (Dutton, 1992; Straus & Gilles, 1990). Also you need to keep in mind that these surveys depend on self-reporting and young adults who are low- income or immigrants usually don’t take the time to take the surreys. There are many things that can lead to abuse in a relationship such as social pressures that create stress, personality pathologies like poor impulse control and drug or alcohol abuse (Gilles, 1993; Mockery et al. 1995; O’Leary, 1993; Straus , 1 996; Yell, 1993). Another critical factor is the history of child neglect or mistreatment. Obviously if a child is exposed to a lot of postal abuse, physical or mental abuse, or even sexual abuse can increase the risk of that person being abusive when they’re older or possibly even being a victim. There are two forms of spouse abuse that can be seen when a relationship is looked at closer (Johnson, 1995). The first form is called common couple violence in which one or both partners engage in outbursts of verbal and physical attack (Berger, 2003).

This common couple violence involves yelling insults, and physical abuse but they are not part of the campaign of dominance. Women are just as likely to commit this type of buses as well as men but sometimes both partners get involved in the arguments. For the most part a couple involved in common couple violence gradually learn to resolve conflicts in a more constructive way either on their own or with a counselor. However there are some couples that can evolve into worse abuse. The second form of abuse is patriarchal terrorism in which there is almost no hope for the couple to get out of it (Johnson, 1995).

Patriarchal terrorism is when one partner, almost always the man, uses a different variety of ways to isolate, degrade and punish the other partner (Berger, 2003). This form of buses can lead to the battered-wife syndrome in which the woman is physically abused as well as psychologically and socially broke down. Patriarchal terrorism can become even more extreme the longer the relationship lasts. Every time an act of abuse occurs it helps the man ‘s feeling of control and adds to the woman’s feeling of helplessness.

There are two main reasons why a woman stays in a systematically abusive relationship. The first reason being she has been conditioned to the abuse step by step and the second reason is she has been isolated from those who might encourage her to leave (Berger, 2003). If the couple does have children they can be taken “hostage” by the man if the woman threatens to leave. In a patriarchal terrorism relationship the woman cannot break the cycle of abuse on her own. The recognition of this type of abuse has led law enforcement agencies to have a tougher approach to dealing with these situations.

Serious abuse has been found to be more common in younger couples in common- lava marriages. The primary prevention that would help decrease abuse in the long run would be educating children about abuse. Also counteracting the poverty and deprivation that underlies abuse and treating alcohol abuse old help in decreasing the amount of abuse (Berger, 2003). The 1999 General Social Survey on Factorization that was done in Canada produced a insight to the extent of spousal abuse in Canada.

There were 26,000 men and women who have suffered some soft of spousal abuse that participated in this survey. The survey showed that the violence experienced by women was usually more severe and more often repeated than the violence directed towards men. The survey found women were six times more likely to report being sexually assaulted along with being five times more likely to require medical attention as a result of an assault. The women were much more likely to fear for their lives or their children’s lives as a result of assault.

Women were also more likely to have sleeping problems, suffer from depression or anxiety attacks, or have a lowered self-esteem. Women that were involved in more severe types of emotional abuse were four times more likely to report being harassed, threatened, or harmed. These women reported more incidents where they were isolated from family or friends as well as reporting a higher amount of name-calling and put downs. The mental health of an individual involved in an abusive relationship suffers ore and more as the relationship continues.

Recent research has used the diagnostic Positivistic Stress Disorder to explain some of the effects of abuse on the mental level. Some symptoms found in victims were increased fear/avoidance, anxiety disturbances in self-concept, depression, and sexual dysfunction (Restock, 1995). The symptoms that are characteristics found in the Postgraduates Stress Disorder are: persistently experiencing the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of situations similar to those involving the traumatic event, and persistent symptoms of increased arousal (Hanson, 1990; Brier, 1992).

However using the PETS as a model does not account for many other symptoms for victims of abuse. When people think of abuse they usually think physical and psychological abuse. What they don’t know is there are many forms of abuse. There of course is sexual assault, sexual harassment, or sexual plantation. This form of abuse happens when someone is forced into unwanted, unsafe, or degrading sexual activity. Using ridicule and other tactics to try and control or limit someone sexuality or reproductive choices is also sexual abuse (Department of Justice Canada).

There is economical or financial abuse which involves stealing or defrauding a partner is an example as well as withholding money needed for food or medical purposes, exploiting a person for financial gain or even preventing your partner from working. There is also a form of abuse known as spiritual abuse which involves using a person’s religious or spiritual beliefs to manipulate or control their victim. It may also include denying that person from engaging in spiritual or religious practices. Although there is no define dive reason for spousal abuse of anyone there are several factors that can increase the chance of abuse.

Some risk factors that re for both men and women are: being young, living in a common-law marriage, having a partner that drinks heavily, emotional abuse which often is the predecessor to physical violence, and marital separation in which afterwards the risk of the woman being killed is greater (Department of Justice Canada). Abuse can affect almost every part of a person’s life such as their ability to work. Being abused can affect a person’s sense of self-worth as well as the person’s relationships with their children or loved ones.

Abuse can be devastating to people who are not the intended target such as children. Having a child exposed to physical abuse in the home can not only affect emotional and developmental areas of the child but can also give the child difficulties in academics. Children exposed to physical violence are more likely to get physically aggressive, be hyperactive or have acts of vandalism. Not only does abuse affect the children involved and the partners in the relationship but also can cost the government millions of dollars. An estimated $4. Billion per year was spent in Canada on social services, education, criminal justice, labor, employment, health and medical costs. Canada’s criminal justice costs alone were totaled near $872 million per year. Many times abuse is learned at a young age and is believed to be the right Way to handle certain situations. When a child sees abuse On a daily basis or is abused themselves they continue on through life believing that is the way people should be treated. Child maltreatment can be divided into two categories abuse and neglect.

Although neglect is twice as common as abuse it is at least as damaging as abuse (Berger 2003). Since 1 993 there have been three million reported cases of child maltreatment in the US, and one million asses where they had to be investigated and verified as maltreatment (Wang & Dare, 1998). Although the rate of child maltreatment has been increasing the way in which we view child mistreatment changes through different eras. Take for example spanking, while I was growing up was spanked when I did something bad. Now it is frowned upon if you spanker child unless it’s because they endangered their own life.

As with spousal abuse, child abuse can affect the child in profound ways. Child abuse goes beyond an immediate injury or deprivation, it affects many parts of the child’s regular life. Children hat have been abused often are underweight, slower to talk in a social situation, not able to concentrate as well as well cared for children, and are delayed in academic growth (Chicest et al. , 1 993; Concorde et al. , 1993). When these children are mistreated they tend to see adults or other children as hostile or wanting to take advantage of the child.

When this happens the mistreated child become less friendly, more aggressive, and tend to isolate themselves more from the other children (Berger, 2003). Depending on how long the abuse has been taking place and how early it started will judge how ad the relationships with peers will be when the child gets older. When children who have been severely abused grow to become adolescents and adults they Often use drugs and alcohol to numb any pain or emotions that they are having. These individuals tend to put themselves in unsupported relationships as well has becoming either an aggressive partner or become victims again.

These people usually have a self-destructive lifestyle or behaviors. When a child is left to deal with the person every day after being abused they tend to make up elaborate stories as to why they were attacked. When a child comes up with these ideas as to what they did to cause the abuse or how to avoid the abuse the next time, these children develop a range of maladaptive behaviors which can become pathological problems (Newton, 2001 Besides these problems with child abuse there is another factor that affects the child and that is the stress that is put onto a child.

When this victim repeatedly experiencing getting stressed out there are permanent physiological changes. The victim can become easily startled especially when the event reminds them of the abuse, they can have articulators problems as well as immune system problems where they are more likely to get sick. Eke with spousal abuse, child abuse affects the financial situation of the government. One estimate gives an average of $813 per investigation of abuse whether or not they are true, $2,702 for home services such as homemaker assistance, and $21,902 per year and per child for foster care (Courtney, 1998).

The amounts stated are just small portions of what child abuse can cost us financially, what hasn’t been taken into consideration is the costs for special education if the child has a learning disability, imprisonment f the child becomes violent and angry later on in life, also the cost of providing the child with psychological treatment for any emotional or stress problems. When all these costs are calculated together it would appear that spending this amount of money on education to help prevent child abuse and other forms of prevention.

Besides the obvious bruises or cuts on a child there are many ways to tell if a child is being abused not only physically but mentally as well. Victims of child abuse may show aggressive, disruptive, or sometimes illegal behavior; but children may also show anxiety or fear, signs f depression, frequent diaper rash in babies, passive or withdrawn behavior and also if the child seems reluctant to go home (Newton, 2001 ALL. Analyses the strengths and weaknesses in current national and local legislations and policies relating to those vulnerable to abuse. Safeguarding is a key role for social workers working with people with learning disabilities. This assignment will consider models of human development and critically analyses factors that impact upon the vulnerability of adults. It will further explore how adults with learning disabilities are oppressed and discriminated against at various levels.

Using a practical example I demonstrate how I use theory to critically reflect on the consequences and dilemmas for practice with vulnerable adults and investigate issues that may affect safeguarding in the present day. A Is a 22 year old woman with Speakers Syndrome and a mild learning disability. She was sexually abused as a child, and now lives independently, in the community where she grew up. A support agency had been commissioned to support her with day to day living and bill paying, however A refused this support, would not open the door to workers and dated that she didn’t need the support.

There were increasing concerns that A was experimenting with drugs, engaging in criminal activity and being promiscuous with local drug users. A referral is made to the Learning Disability team by a drugs support service who are concerned that A lacks capacity to understand the implication of using drugs, and that she may be being exploited as a result of receiving a high level of disability benefits.

This case highlights the complexities of working with people with learning disabilities who do not identify with traditional OLD services, but are articulacy vulnerable. This and Traverse (2006) considers the Microsystems for adults to include the person, their strengths and weaknesses and their personal relationships whilst the Microsystems considers how factors within the Microsystems interact with the family and work setting, personal other social groups.

Ass vulnerabilities Came from her disability, being a woman and having a history of sexual abuse. This had an impact upon her self -esteem and self worth. Both self esteem and confidence can be lacking in people with learning disabilities (Newark and Weber (2007), and people with learning capabilities are considerably more likely to experience sexual violence than non-disabled people (Hollows 201 1). A refused to identify herself as someone with a learning disability and was desperate to “fit in”.

Attwood (1998) argues that a young person with Speakers may become depressed or completely deny there is anything wrong with themselves, developing sensitivity to the merest suggestion of being different. Speakers syndrome manifests itself in people’s ability to interact with others and the wider society. A was evidently vulnerable to ridicule and abuse from others because of her difference. She was unemployed and reliant on benefits and as a result she could only secure housing in a relatively poor urban area.

Berger (1966) argues that if we see vulnerability as located in the individual due to their needs, we run the risk of locating the cause of abuse within them, rather than how society views and supports people. It is therefore important to recognize how personal factors interact with wider societal factors.