Answer the following questions regarding the potential energy curves for CA, NO, and 12, as shown below. A) Label the axis. Potential energy is in mol and bond length is in viscometers. B) Label the curves for CA, NO, and 12. Justify your choice. C) Which requires energy: bond formation or bond breaking? Justify your answer. D) What is the bond energy in joules for one molecule of nitrogen? 3. The graph below shows the effect of changing temperature on the vapor pressure for two liquids, ethane and water. Ethane Ethanol a) Explain why vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. ) Identify the intermolecular forces involved for each substance. ) Indicate which curve is likely water and which curve is ethane. Justify your answer using intermolecular forces d) Sketch the curve you would expect for ethanol. Justify your sketch using intermolecular forces. 4. Answer the following question regarding the boiling point curves shown. A) Explain the general increasing trend in terms of intermolecular forces. B) Explain the anomalies seen with NH, H2O, and HP in terms of c) Why doesn’t CHI follow the same pattern as NH, H2O, and HE? C.
States of Matter & Solubility 1 . Draw a picture showing the salvation/hydration of Magic in water. 2. Draw he lone pair electrons on the structure below. Show the dipole-dipole attractions between water and the glycerol molecule shown below. Make sure you show examples of the hydrogen and oxygen ends of water. 3. Draw the lone pair electrons on the structure below. Show the dipole- dipole attractions between water and the amino acid molecule shown below. Make sure to show water attracted to BOTH functional groups. 4. Use the heating curve to answer the following questions. ) Identify (include the segment number) the phase changes that occur during the heating curve. B) For each segment, indicate whether the added heat is being used to break intermolecular forces or increase the kinetic energy of the substance. C) Why does segment “2” require more energy than segment “4′? D) Which constants would be required to calculate the heat involved for each segment of the curve? 5. The graph below shows the distribution if molecular speeds for samples of CA and NO at the same temperature. (a) Label the curves and justify your answer. (b) Sketch the curve expected for Nee 6.
The following graphs are commonly used in the study of gas laws. Assuming constant moles, label the axis for each curve showing the relationships among pressure, temperature, and volume. . The questions below refer to the cylinders of gas shown, all at 295 K. (a) Which gas has the greatest velocity? Justify your answer. (b) Assuming the mass of the empty cylinders is the same, which cylinder would have the greatest mass? Justify your answer. (c) Which gas has the greatest kinetic energy? Justify your answer. 8. Answer the questions regarding the solubility curves shown. ) What forces of attraction are broken and which are formed during the dissolving process for the substances formed? Which requires energy? B) A solution is made using 70. G of potassium dichloride. Is the solution unsaturated, saturated, or supersaturated at ICC? C) A solution is made using 70. G of potassium nitrate. Is the solution unsaturated, saturated, or supersaturated at ICC? D) A solution is made using 70. G of lead(al) nitrate at ICC. If a crystal of lead(al) nitrate were added to the solution, would expect to see: a. The crystal to dissolve b. The crystal to float to the bottom c.
The crystal to grow e) Justify your answer from (d): f) A solution is made using 70. G of cerium sulfate tactic. If a crystal of cerium sulfate were added to the solution, would expect to see: a. The crystal to dissolve g) Justify your answer from (f): ) A solution is made using 48 g of potassium chlorate at ICC. How many grams would precipitate out of solution if the temperature were decreased to ICC? D. Kinetics 1 . Sketch the effect of adding a catalyst on the potential energy curve below. Circle the energy values that change upon the addition of a catalyst. 2.
The graph below shows the distribution of fraction of collision versus kinetic energy for a reaction at 450 K. (a) Sketch the curve for 600 K. What are the three changes that are observed in the curve? What happens to the fraction of collisions with energy greater than the activation energy? Justify your answer in terms of collision theory. (b) Indicate the effect on the drawing upon the addition of a catalyst. What happens to the fraction of collisions with energy greater than the activation energy? Justify your answer in terms of collision theory. 3. Draw and label axis for the curves below.
Match the curves with the appropriate description. A. Exothermic reaction with a 2 step mechanism where the first step is slow. B. Endothermic reaction with a 2 step mechanism where the first step is slow. C. Endothermic reaction with a 2 step mechanism where the second step is slow. D. Exothermic reaction with a 1 step mechanism. E. Exothermic reaction with a 2 step mechanism where the second step is slow. F. Endothermic reaction with a 1 step mechanism. 4. Answer the following regarding graphical analysis in kinetics Label the y-axis assuming a zero order reaction.
What is the intercept? How would the rate constant, k, be determined from the graph? Sketch a line indicating the changes observed upon the addition of a catalyst. Make sure you consider changes to the shape, intercept, and slope. Label the y-axis assuming a first order reaction. Label the y-axis assuming a second order reaction. This graph shows the change in concentration versus time for a reaction. Explain how this graph could be used to determine whether the order is zero, first, or second. You must include all three possibilities in your answer. E. Equilibrium 1.
Answer each of the following questions based on the graphs. Each question may have more than one answer or the answer of “none”. Graph A Graph B Graph D Graph E Graph C Graph F The six graphs above all refer to the reaction shown above. All graphs have the same units and scale on each axis and the starting amount of M(g) is the same for all graphs. Answer the following questions based on the graphs shown. JUSTIFY: a. Which graph(s) show a thermodynamically favored reaction? B. Which graph(s) show a Nan-thermodynamically favored c. Which graph(s) show a reaction where LAG is reaction?
JUSTIFY: negative and the Eke value is closest to one? JUSTIFY: d. Which graph(s) show a reaction where GAG is negative and the kinetics of the reaction is the slowest? JUSTIFY: e. Which graph(s) show a reaction where GAG is negative and the kinetics of the reaction is the fastest? JUSTIFY: f. Which graph(s) shows the largest value for the equilibrium constant, Keg? JUSTIFY: _g. Which graph(s) shows the smallest value for the equilibrium constant, h. Rank the speed of the reaction, from slowest to fastest Eke? JUSTIFY: for graphs, A, B and C. JUSTIFY: 2.
The graph below shows the progression of the reaction NANA (g) S NANA(g). Suppose NON was injected into the mixture at the dotted line. Sketch what would happen to both concentrations each if NON was added until its concentration reached 0. 03 M. F. Adds & eases 1 . A weak acid was titrated with sodium hydroxide. Match the description with the correct points on the titration curve. Letters can be used more than once and a description may have more than one letter. Represents a solution that has buffering capacity species present is the propionate form of the acid (HA). Lactated from the excess Noah in solution a) b) The only c) pH is d) The only species present is the De-propionate (UN-propionate) form of the acid (A-). E) Equivalence point. F) Point at which pH=peak. -?g) [HA] > (propionate form > De-propionate) h) [HA < [A-I (protonate form < de-protonated) i) BEST place to determine the molarity of the acid if the dissociation constant is unknown. -?j) pH is controlled by the conjugate base. ) suffer where CHA] > [A-I l) Buffer where CHAW] < 2. Explain why the pH is basic at the equivalence point for the titration shown above.