These tenets will be discussed and give light as to why people behave the way they do, whether or not people have some choice in shaping their individual personality, whether people are river by unconscious forces, where pathologies originate from, whether human nature is shaped more by heredity or environment, reasons for similarities and differences among people and why people act in predictable as well as unpredictable ways. Theories, or a set of related assumptions that formulate a hypothesis will be introduced to help explain the six major tenets of personality theory.
There will also be discussion as to how these tenets are related to biblical principles. Personality theory is a grand subject centered between six foundational tenets. Each tenet will be discussed in detail and be accompanied by factual, scholarly evidence. Each tenet is different from the other but also entwined in the whole of the personality. The tenets each have their own relation to the individual personality; however, they are also relational to one another and work together to make up the whole personality.
In order to be psychologically healthy, certain progress needs met under each foundational tenet. Foundations of Personality Nature versus Nurture Nature versus nurture is perhaps the most complex foundational pillar of personality theory. Scientists are torn between whether nature or nurture, the environment is the basis of personality. This debate can be specifically applied to understanding the psychology of gender (Eagle & Wood, 2013).
People are interested in these ideas because they have a great deal to do with personal identity as well as personal decision making (Eagle & Wood, 2013). Humans have evolved capacities to innovate and communicate with others which produces a cumulative culture in which beliefs and practices are shared and modified (Eagle & Wood, 2013). These capacities arise from novel environments and are a product of humans’ adaptation to variation itself (Eagle & Wood, 2013). This flexibility is apparent in both sexes evidenced in a vision of labor across societies (Eagle & Wood, 2013).
The activities that makeup the division of labor is derived in part from male and female biology or their physical attributes (Eagle & Wood, 2013). Some activities can be better performed by men because of their size and strength, whereas women have reproductive capability (Eagle & Wood, 2013). This division of labor depends on socioeconomic and ecological factors (Eagle & Wood, 2013). Within societies, the division of labor seems natural or inevitable due to social psychological processes involved in forming gender role beliefs (Eagle & Wood, 2013).
These gender roles are generally accepted and support individuals who act in accordance with them and can also be used as internalized personal standards for individual behavior (Eagle & Wood, 2013). The social psychological influences act with biological processes including hormones which support the coloratura factors that guide masculine and feminine behaviors within a culture (Eagle & Wood, 2013). A coherent message from psychology requires integration of diverse research on the psychology of women and men in regards to bifocals interaction theories that acknowledge causal roles (Eagle & Wood, 2013).
The unconscious The unconscious is an important aspect of personality theory and personality is greatly affected by the unconscious. Ego state personality theory proposes that the personality is made up of parts and that therapists must work specifically with individual parts to foster change (Gordon, 2011 Accepting this theory can help therapists in conducting interventions (Gordon, 201 1). This theory is applied in understanding underlying concerns and conceptualizing them as well as planning therapy accordingly (Gordon, 201 1).
The therapist is able to assess a client’s needs relating to some type of internal dissent or reaction to an unwanted response (Gordon, 2011). Once a theoretical understanding of the client’s presenting concerns can be conceptualized, and the direction of therapy is determined, work directly related to the communication, negotiation, and resolution of the ego states can begin (Gordon, 2011). View of Self A person’s acceptance of their view of self is an important aspect in the foundation of personality.
People differ greatly in the amount they care about others perceptions of them (Leary & Allen, 2011 Knowing that other people respond to them on the basis of formed impressions people devote a great ell bethought and energy assessing how they are perceived by other people, and behaving in a way that will create impressions that lead others to treat them in a desired way (Leary & Allen, 2001 In almost every interpersonal encounter, people hold on to incorrect assumptions regarding the nature of their interaction (Leary & Allen, 2011).
In reality, people are interacting not with another person, but instead with their own impressions of that person (Leary & Allen, 2011). People’s self-presentations correlate highly with how they privately rate themselves (Leary & Allen, 2011). When people perceive themselves In a particular way, they will convey impressions that are congruent with their self perceptions because that is the way they think they are (Leary & Allen, 201 1).
Personality is involved in how people are motivated to manage their impressions, the nature of the public image they are trying to convey, and their perception of their effectiveness in self- presentation (Leary & Allen 2011 Whatever impressions people convey of themselves to other people may gain reaction from others but also effects their own emotions, self-perceptions, and personality (Leary & Allen, 201 1). Progression of Personality Development Development of personality plays an important part in the progression of personality.
Understanding the development of personality not only helps to understand one’s self, but also sheds light on other people’s development of personality as well as the development of other species. Socio-genomic biology is an alternate biological model for personality psychology to consider (Roberts & Jackson, 2008). Socio-genomic biology contradicts the assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental is unchangeable (Roberts & Jackson, 2008).
The assumption of socio-genomic logy is derived from socio-biology and evolutionary theory and explains that all behavior is influenced by genes and forces of evolution (Roberts & Jackson, 2008). This is true for any heritable behavior that has some impact on survival or reproduction however small it may be (Roberts & Jackson, 2008). This is further explained by two gene processes. The first is a variation in gene activity which may be inherited through variations in DNA sequences which is considered “nature” (Roberts & Jackson, 2008).
The second is gene expression may be influenced through variations in environment and insider “nurture” (Roberts & Jackson, 2008). This model of socio-genomic biology presents that all species not only are defined by their genetic makeup, but that their environment also plays great role in their development (Roberts & Jackson, 2008). A coherent model of personality would contain all characteristics that are essential to describe individual differences of psychological functioning such as feeling, thinking, striving and behaving (Candler, Zimmerman, & Macadam, 2014).
Theories of human development are in agreement with the laypersons conception that personality becomes more complex from childhood to adulthood (Candler, Zimmerman, & Macadam, 2014). According to Candler, Zimmerman, & Macadam (2014), Big Five trait dimensions do not reflect core individual differences in people’s social attitudes, values, interests, or major life goals, but may reflect stable heritable core individual differences in patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Furthermore, basic traits better reflect interests, motives, attitudes, and values that are not sufficiently captured by core individual differences (Candler, Zimmerman, & Macadam, 2014). This calls for more integrative personality models to be presented that ill better explain individual trait differences. Motivation Motivation is a key aspect in the progression of personality. Motivation works in personalities to help people achieve goals in everyday life (Costner, Otis, Powers, Paltrier, & Agony, 2008).
All individuals have different reasons for setting goals and different motivations which help them achieve their goals (Costner et al, 2008). It is hypothesized that autonomous motivation is associated with greater goal progress (Costner et al, 2008). Also, depending on what people are motivated by will determine how well they do at completing their goals (Costner et al, 2008). Maturation Personality maturation is a key piece of personality theory. Comprehending the process of maturation helps to explain an important part of a person’s personality growth over time.
There are two theories related to personality maturation, the Five-factor theory and the Social Investment theory (Bloodier et al, 2013). Five-factor theory states that both stability and change in personality traits are under biological control and determined mainly by genetics (Bloodier et al, 2013). Therefore, a lack of cross-cultural differences in age trends of personality supports the assumption that the timing of rationality development is a genetically determined human universal (Bloodier et al, 2013).
Social investment theory proposes that age specific life transitions in early adulthood such as graduating from college, getting married, or having a baby, stimulates personality maturation because young adults are forced to invest in and commit to the aforementioned social roles (Bloodier et al, 2013). These roles are connected to culture-specific societal expectations of reaching a certain age and these expectations can be formulated in terms of personality traits (Bloodier, et al, 2013).
For example, a ewe parent would be expected to act in a conscientious way and this transitional-role experience is assumed to form a reward structure for personality maturation (Bloodier et al, 2013). People all over the world are expected to fill social roles and mature into members of society and filling these roles can be a key driving mechanism contributing to the maturation of the personality (Bloodier et al, 2013). Five-factor theory and social-investment theory both reveal strong evidence for the assumption that personality maturation during early adulthood is a universal phenomenon (Bloodier et a’, 2013).
Biblical Integration It is obvious that different personalities are present in the Bible. It is also clear that God created each person with individuality in regards to personality. When each foundational tenet of personality theory is recognized and successfully met, psychological health will ensue and there are references in the Bible specific to each tenet. For instance, regarding motivation, Proverbs 3:5 (ESP.) states “Trust in the Lord with all your heart, and do not lean on your own understanding’. In other words use the Lord as your motivation and not earthly pleasures.