Nokia Strategy Analysis essay

Even though, their product oratorio is quite diverse, their main products are mobile phones and IT devices. Monika occupied the leadership position in the mobile phones’ industry for more than a decade; however in 201 1 this position was lost. The introduction of the smartness in the market, the scandal related with Stephen Elopes memo, ex-CEO (Ratter Effect), and the loss of trust in the brand related with the too-early announcement of changing in the operating system (Osborne Effect); resulted in a boycott both from carriers and retailers against Monika that had a strong negative impact in its performance and overall results.

As a consequence, Monika had to re-think their position in the industry and attempt to innovate in order to attain the previous position in consumers’ mind. Nevertheless, it is still one of the giants in the industry. In fact, it is the second-largest mobile phone maker in the world with a global market share Of 22. 5%. Therefore, this report will focus not in Monika Corporation, but also, and mainly, in their smartness, i. E. Their attempt to restore its previous position in the market and regain the lost ground in the industry. General Data- Monika Corporation Founded Industry Finland, 1865

Telecommunications equipment; Internet; Computer software. Revenues Net income Total Assets Employees ?30. 176 billion (2012) ?3. 106 billion (2012) ?8. 061 billion (2012) 97,798 (2012) TO get a clear picture of the company, it is important to know its mission, vision and core values, since they are the lifelines to sustainability. They are presented below: O Mission: “Con injecting people” Vision: “To build great mobile products that enable billions of people worldwide to enjoy more of life has to offer. Our objective is to achieve this in an increasingly dynamic and competitive environment”.

Core Values: focus on the customer, win together, innovate, communicate openly and inspire. II. Industry Analysis PEST ANALYSIS There are a variety of analysis that can be used in order to understand the external factors that influence the decisions and performance of an industry. The PEST analysis was chosen since it is a direct but systematic approach used to identify the factors that are more likely to influence the activity and the competition inside the industry. Not only in the present but also in the future: INDICATOR POLITICAL : Legal Restrictions Stability of the Government Licenses

REASONING Each company that manufactures smartness must take in consideration the legal requirements to produce in those countries (e. G. : minimum wage, maximum hours of work per week, Health and Safety regulations and environmental values). Understand the political condition; the relations between political parties and possibility of creation/alteration of laws. The restriction made by the government regarding the G and G wireless services’ access might influence not only the operators but also the demand for smartness.

The smartness started to appear during the global crisis which decreased the demand for previous cellophane, while the sales of smartness were not so ECONOMICS Economic Activity affected because they were a new product. However in the future this scenario can change once this type of cellophane are, nowadays, ordinary, which can lead to stabilization or even a decrease in sales. In these countries the wireless structure has been developing which increases the portion of the market of this type of products. Also the globalization leads to a broad knowledge of this technology and create the desire for these goods.

The economic situation of a country is important once it has a direct impact on the cost of borrowing money because of the fluctuation of the interest rate. Also the Exchange rate is very important if a company has its activities in countries with different currencies. It is important to understand the social factors in the countries in which a company is or pretend to promote its activity such as religion, culture and everyday life. Consumers are becoming more ambitious and dynamic since they are after the innovative fashionable smartness which obligates companies to be competitive and in continuous development.

The smartened industry is characterized by the technological advances, the continuous growing and the high level of competition. In this sense, Monika must ensure that their smartness are not only the most innovative but also simple to use and have useful software. Smartness in developing countries Current Economy culture Factors SOCIAL Changes in trends Dynamic Process TECHNOLOGICAL Mergers Alliance between companies can created add value to a product when two companies can complement each other and obtain a better product.

This happened for example when Monika and Microsoft worked together in the reaction of smartness recently. 3 PORTER’S FIVE FORCES OF COMPETITION FRAMEWORK The smartened market is rapidly changing with constant product introductions. It is characterized by quickly evolving technology and designs, short product life cycles, aggressive pricing, rapid imitation of product and technological advancements, and highly price sensitive consumers. There is no firm in the market with sufficient market share to control prices, resulting in strong rivalry and competitive pricing.

The framework will analyze not only the current situation but also the future expectation: THREAT OF ENTRY Capital acquirement Risk: Moderate (**) Capital requirements extremely high. Large sum of money is needed to be able to achieve economies of scale, to invest in R&D and technology. Huge fixed costs and variable associated with smartness manufacturing. Most firms have the hardware of the phones manufactured overseas but costs of developing the research, Economies of scale design and engineering, test the smartened and software can be prohibitively expensive for an entering firm.

An entering firm would either have to enter with existing resources targeting the smartened market, or it loud have to have another significant competitive advantage. Absolute cost advantages Patents are one major absolute cost advantage in the industry. Many parts of the smartened hardware and software are protected by patents held by majors. Different sources of differentiation: developing operating systems, applications, and content Product differentiation services. Shift of focus from hardware to software: Google with its Android SO and Apple with its ISO control nearly 90% of the smartened SO market.

Application Store also important (e. G. Apple store). Access to distribution channels The access to distribution channels is not an obstacle of entry on the industry. The channels of distribution include shipping straight from the manufacturer to the mobile phone network providers and to some specific retail chains. Many parts of the smartened hardware and software are protected by patents held by the big market participants. There are some barriers related to governmental regulation of electronic devices.

Multiple companies produce and develop chippies for different smartened manufacturer. Retaliation by established producers Some manufacturers have started making in-house processors for their own mobile device (e. G. Apple). The software operating system from Google does not pose a significant retaliation as it fully open source. Government and legal baa reasserted OF SUBSTITUTES Risk: Low (*) Substitution is not a significant threat to smartened manufacturers. The only competitor that can shake the semaphore’s market is the feature phone.

The primary reason that consumers Buyer propensity to substitute chose to go with a feature Instead of a smartened is the price of the phone as well as requirements for basic functionality. The trend in emergent markets for feature phones is probably going to be the same as in the rest of the world, ND the preferences will eventually shift to smartness. Having in consideration the features that smartness have, MPH player, cameras, video Relative prices and performance of substitutes player, it would not be practical having a single device for each one of this feature, a camera, a MPH reader, a DVD player, etc.

People prefer having all this possibilities in only one handset. Also, although a camera takes better photos than the camera of a mobile, and GAPS device probably has more functions than the application on a smartened, the price of all these devices summed would be much higher Han the smartened. BUYER POWER Risk: High (***) Network operators will be playing their part making sure there is more competition to drive Bargaining Power down the price of the hardware. The power of operating companies becomes stronger in emerging countries.

Elastic Demand Buyer Information Price sensitivity and differentiation among products SUPPLIER POWER Demand for smartened is elastic and buyers can delay buying new models. For instance, due to the economic crisis, sales of smartness declined by 1 . 7% in 2012 (source: Gardner) Easy access of information for buyers (can easily compare prices). Every innovation is easily imitated the industry and it is very price sensitive. As more models are launched, manufacturers may have to the cut price of their handsets to attract consumers. Profit margins may shrink.

Risk: High (***) Bargaining power of hardware producers is moderate because there are a lot of possible Bargaining Power of hardware producers manufacturers. Monika should avoid their hardware suppliers to launch their own brands since sometimes these companies get into the market with appealing products with low price. Some critical components, such as the chippies are controlled by a few large impasse who have potential bargaining strengths. Bargaining Power of software producers Bargaining Power of complements producers Bargaining power of software producers becomes more and more important. Microsoft has a high bargaining power for Monika.

The bargaining power of software producers may increase in the future as Monika planned to reduce significantly its spending on R. Suppliers of complements create value for the smartened industry. It is in our case for example the producers of applications for smartness. It is possible that these suppliers will exercise a bargaining power in the future. INDUSTRY RIVALRY Risk: High (***) Important concentration ratio of the industry: in 2012 2 firms concentrate 50% of the Concentration ratio smartened total market share (Apple with 30,3% and Samsung with 19,1 Monika is third with only 4,9% (CB. Able 1 in Appendix). During several years, competition focuses especially in advertising and promotion. Price Diversity of competitors competition is now increasing with the development of low cost products by producers like Hawaii, MicroVAX or Mexican. Monika is currently launching cheaper smartness, starting at 130? which can be very interesting to expand its share especially in emerging markets. As price competition arises, differentiation among the smartness increases. As more models Product Differentiation are launched, manufacturers have to the cut price oftener handsets.

Monika admitted its desire of competing in all price ranges. Monika will have to adapt its strategy to each segment in order to maximize its sales. Barriers to exit are really important As there are important capital requirements to enter the Excess capacity, exit barriers and cost conditions industry and significant fixed costs associated with smartened manufacturing (most firms outsource their production but the cost of evolving R and software are really high), excess capacity that comes from declining demand could have bad consequences on manufacturers and encourages firms to offer price cuts.

MARKET SEGMENTATION Segmentation is a process commonly used to divide the market into relatively similar and identifiable groups in order to be easier to meet the expectations of different customers. Monika, in order to pursue its global leader position as a phone manufacturer, have engaged in various segmentation strategies. Nowadays, the smartened industry is in a mature state in where only a few segments exist. Monika uses two types of segmentation, simultaneously, which will be presented below: MULTI-DIMENSIONAL SEGMENTATION: determines the different variables which influence the consumers in the purchase decision.

The following table summarizes the wide-ranging number of variables, considering phone features and individual behavior preferences as the most important: 6 Who Enterprise Users What Connectivity, files, presentations When Outside the working place Where Supplied directed to the company Why To keep up-iodated, utilize idle time How Company, colleagues Qwerty, speed, High Volume Testers App store gamers, camera snappers,

Technology Lovers music streamers, music collectors dictionary All the time Official distributors, mass market To text quicker and easier, to facilitate communication and colonization Friends, mass market advertising All the time Official distributors, online stores, mass market To enjoy all the applications Online forums and reviews, experts’ reports, specialized magazines High speed and Web Searchers capacity Internet, connectivity Edgy and multiple Fashion Accessories designs, social networks access Away from home Away from home Official distributors, online stores, mass market Official distributors, Online tortes, mass Market To keep up-to-date with information To show off, to follow the trends Online forums and reviews, specialized magazines Advertising, sponsored events, fashion magazines, friends Ionians product portfolio is constituted by several devices, in order to be appealing to different age’s categories, income levels, family structures, and so on.

In fact, the company is able to attract people from several different backgrounds with their wide range of offers in terms of power life, applications, durability and practical design. Unlike Apple, Monika has a particular focus in women as almost every product is possible to be found in colors that attract this segment (e. G. : Monika Purple designed for women and young teenage girls accompanied by the slogan ‘Treat her like a lady”). This positioning states that women should have a phone particular to their preferences, and that a unisex device is simply not enough. On the other hand, Monika Alumina is very appealing to professional users since it gives the opportunity to use Microsoft Office anywhere they may be.

Another example that may be given is Alumina 900 as it is priced with the ultimate goal of being accessible to a wider range f consumers and its features and design/color also suggests a younger audience. Targeting: Using the examples given from Ionians portfolio and the table presented above, one can conclude that Monika is targeting preferentially Enterprise Users, Technology Lovers and Fashion Accessories. High Volume Testers would not usually buy Monika, since there are not many options with Qwerty. Regarding Web Searchers they are more likely to prefer more efficient systems, such as Android to access Internet. 7 GEOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: Monika is using a quite regional approach to segmentation, in order to appeal to several niche markets and gain their aspect and trust.

Hence, in similarity with what Monika does in their financial reports, the globe will be divided as the following: Europe Size (?m) Growth 1210 Middle East & Africa 745 Greater China 213 Asia-Pacific 941 North America 196 Latin America 549 For each geographical area, the net sales of the 4 the Trimester/201 2 are given, which gives an approximate size of the business. In addition, the estimated growth is also presented, calculated using the recent net sales’ growth from each region, individually. Also, to take advantage of the emerging economies, new low-end phone have been plopped at affordable prices and flagship stores have been opened to provide these customers with a high quality support services. For example, in December 201 2, Monika announced a partnership with the world’s largest operator, China Mobile, in order to be able to offer an exclusive Chinese variant of Alumina 920. This was considered a very important step to partially cover the 700 million Chinese customer bases.

Targeting: Due to the market size and growth, Europe and North America are good regions to target. However, the bold strategies that Monika is undertaking in regions like Latin America, Asia-Pacific or Middle East, are a clear indicator about these segments’ importance. Regarding Great China, although sales decreased 70% in the previous year and that Monika has to face very strong competition from local producers, huge investment are being made in this region. As a result, one can easily see that Monika is a global company, with every geographic segment being targeted. KEY SUCCESS FACTORS In order to assess Ionians potential to succeed in its industry, it is important to evaluate its Key Success Factors.

Those are specific activities undertaken by the company that have racial importance in its analysis: Key Buying Factors Quality of the gadgets Trusted materials Loyalty to the brand related with emotional attachment – Easy availability Trusted materials Cost Efficiency Competition Factors Reputation Differentiation Production Costs (Economies of Scale) Cheap distribution Marketing Suppliers and Distribution Network Marketing Global production Economies of scale and scope Key Success Branding High technology Flexibility Duration of products Distribution Network Economies of scope Production Costs (Scale Economies) Quality Quality 8 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE ANALYSIS EMERGENCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE INNOVATION The changes that create competitive advantage may be generated through innovation. One could say that Monika acquires competitive advantage through an open innovation strategy 1. Indeed, to innovate, Monika uses different means and capabilities that are both generated internally and externally. INTERNAL INNOVATION: Innovation in Monika is part of the tradition of the company. With 1 1. 00 patents registered in 20 years, it is one of the company’s in the mobile industry with the highest expenditure in R&D. For example, in 2010, Monika spent about ?3. Billion and had 17 200 employees in R&D (e. G. ?1 billion and 3 200 employees for Apple). However, due to the huge crisis the company is facing and due to the cooperation with Microsoft, it made significant changes during 201 1 in their operations for smartness to reflect their strategy (CB. Graphic 1 in appendix). These changes included personnel reductions as well as the transfer of approximately 2 300 employees to Accentuate as part of an agreement in which Accentuate is providing Simian software development and support activities to Monika through 2016.

To support the execution of this new tragedy, they are working to ensure that each of their research and development sites for smartness has a clear focus and that there is greater co-location of their teams (source: Annual Report, 2011-2012). CLC Monika R&D units and Monika research center: Exploratory technology development comes under the scope of Ionians COT (Chief Technology Office) organization. The teams in COT organization set the long-term research agenda for Monika and, in particular, explore next- generation, disruptive technologies and are organized as several sub-units, including Emerging Platforms, Compatibility and Industrial Collaboration, Advanced Engineering, and Monika Research Center. Monika Research Center looks beyond the development of current products, services, platforms and technologies to the creation of assets and competencies in technological areas.

Monika Research Center operates in a number of locations, including major sites in China, Finland, India, Russia, Switzerland and the United States (source: Annual report, 2011-2012). Concerning smartness, the major R&D sites are in Beijing in China, San Diego in the United States and in Solo (where is located also the center for windows phone). CLC Monika way jam: In Monika, innovation is not only generated by employees of the R&D sector. Employees through all sectors are encouraged to share ideas within the whole organization. The Monika Way Jam is a forum for registered Monika employees to share and brainstorm ideas. In 201 1 , 9000 employees shared ideas on this forum.

Open innovation is a paradigm that assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as the firms look to advance their technology EXTERNAL C] Outsourcing innovation and collaboration with other companies: The racket for smartness has shifted from a device oriented strategy to a platform oriented strategy. Today, industry participants are creating competing ecosystems of mutually beneficial partnerships to combine hardware, software, services and an application environment to create high- quality differentiated smartness. Monika has been outsourcing more and more its R&D and product development especially for software development. For this, it has established several agreements with companies like Microsoft, Accentuate and Foxing.

L] Cooperation with end users and customers: Monika as been cooperating with end users by engaging them through Monika Beta Labs. When Monika makes new user applications, Monika beta test them to get reactions from the users. They also have Monika Pilots where users are implemented in the development process. It is a program where users can send in their ideas and come with possible improvements. I:] Acquisitions, licensing venture company: To acquire knowledge and innovate faster, Monika could also acquire companies or establish licensing agreements. Monika has also a venture company, Monika Growth Partner that searches companies in the growth stage (budget of 250 millions in 2010). Collaboration with universities and research institutes: Monika established more than 100 partnerships with universities throughout the world to enhance research capabilities (MIT, Stanford, Tampere, Distinguish University, etc. ). MONIKA INNOVATION STRATEGY: Innovation for Monika is not only creating new products, services or processes that embody new technology; it is also strategic innovation that represents for them new approaches to do business. The approach of innovation of Monika is embodied in their strategy that has 3 core elements: (i) to win in smartness; (ii) to connect the “next billion” to he Internet and information, especially in key emerging markets; and (iii) to continue to invest in future disruptions through long-term exploratory research into the future of mobility and computing.

Investing in future disruptions A focus on hardware rather than software, on technologies rather than human experience. Monika is known for their hardware and design capabilities. The focus on cutting edge technologies is part of the tradition of the company and investment in long term research through the Monika Research Center is really important. For example, on January 201 2 Monika mistreated Kinetic 01, a bendable stretchable device following on from Nanotechnology research. Monika has almost always produced high quality hardware but for a lot of analysts, it was its software that was the weakness of its smartness and it has underestimated the importance of third-party applications to the smartened proposition.

Monika hopes nowadays that its partnership with Microsoft will provide them opportunities to innovate and customize on the Windows Phone platform. They plan to contribute with their expertise on hardware, design and language support and plan to bring Windows Phone to a broad range of price points, market segments and geographies (Annual report, 2011-2012). However, Monika didn’t manage for the moment to create an ecosystem that creates value for consumers, giving them access to a rich and broad range of user experiences. Nowadays, the competitive landscape is increasingly characterized in terms of a “war of ecosystems” rather than a battle between individual hardware manufacturers or products.

It also seems that the focus on cutting end technologies was part of the failure of Monika in the smartened business. They produced a “human connected” marketing by focusing only on technical and technological characteristics of their products and didn’t manage to produce a customer experience. Their Kinetic 131, a bendable stretchable device following on from Nanotechnology research shows exactly these kind of initiatives that were “human disconnected”. – RESPONSIVENESS TO CHANGE “While competitors poured flames on our market share, what happened at Monika? We fell behind, we missed big trends, and we lost time. At that time, we thought we were making the right decisions; but, with the benefit of hindsight, we now find ourselves years behind. Stephen Elope, Ionians CEO Responsiveness to change can be the factor that enables a firm to grow and position itself as a market leader or it can cost that firms position, as it happened to Monika. Monika was a market leader for years. Their brand was a synonym of quality, durability and satisfaction. So what happened? Monika failed to respond to a major change in its market – the smartened revolution. While new competitors such as Apple and Google were entering into the market with new operating systems, ISO and Android respectively, and mobile applications, Monika kept focusing on mobile phone devices. In addition companies as Samsung took advantage of the lack of acceptance of Ionians Simian SO by combining Google’s Android with a wide range of devices, from the most affordable to the most developed and expensive.

In order to invert this situation, Monika decided to take sides with Microsoft on its unproven Windows 8 smartened operating system and launch a new product line, Alumina. The Alumina strategy is similar to the one that boosted Samsung to the top: a large range of smartness varying on price and complexity able to compete with the handsets from Apple, Samsung or ETC. If we are not successful in the smartened market, our business would become more dependent on sales in the feature phone market, which is, especially at lower price points, an increasingly commoditized and intensely competitive market, with substantially lower growth potential, prices and profitability compared to the smartened market.

Recently, smartness of other manufactures, particularly Android-based smartness, are reaching lower price points, which is increasingly reducing the addressable market and lowering the price points for feature phones and may adversely affect our feature phone business. Monika Annual report, 2001 Although when facing the smartened revolution Monika was not able to respond to the new trend, in emerging markets Monika was faster than its competitors to answer that market needs.

English essay

It doesn’t take much to create a city, just roads, buildings, and some people thrown in. But what does it take to makes a community? When groups like charities, support groups, activity centers and many more arrive to a city, they can help it flourish into a community that people are proud of. One group in particular, which I will be observing, is a nonprofit animal rescue. Animal rescues help communities by lowering authentication of animals at shelters as ell as helping control the animal over population in the cities.

Along with bringing new loving additions to many families in our communities. For a weekend I will follow Indigo Halverson, a long term volunteer of Vista Rescue in Moreno Valley. I plan to find out just how much of a role they play in our lovely community. A day before adoptions, an event held at Petcock to show case an animal rescues pets, spoke with Indigo Halverson to go over details of Vista Rescue. Indigo explains that Vista Rescue has been around for five years, started by Karen and De Grooming. Their daughter Nikkei Grooming also helped run the rescue.

Indigo happened to come across Vista Rescue while she was in her junior year of high school. Originally, it was a school based community participation activity, but by the end of the year the Groomsman’s and the rescue became like family to her. Their mission statement,” Vista Rescue is made up of a team of volunteers who have given a large part of their life to making sure our furry friends don’t have to wander the streets wondering where their next meal will come from. We make sure we give a temporary mom to these animals until we can find them a forever home.

We also will not limit ourselves to dogs and cats. We will take any animal who doesn’t have a place to call home anymore no matter what it may be” (Vista Rescue). For the past five years now Indigo has continued to spend countless hours as a volunteer of Vista Rescue, helping all animals, not just dogs and cats, find new homes. Many Other Volunteers have come and gone, with many new ones emerging, but Indigo and the Grooming family expect to keep going for the long haul. On Saturday I meet with Indigo at the Grooming household.

Both Saturday and Sunday they meet at this house to gather all the animals and supplies for the rescue. Walking in, it was a very clean and organized house, no smells and no messes present. Following Indigo down a hallway, we came to a room that hosted roughly twenty cats. Many were random strays while others were litters Of kittens. As cute as the kitten were, Indigo explained that all the animals had to be spayed and neutered. According to ASPIC, an organization for protecting animals, states, “Each year, approximately 2. 7 million animals are euthanized (1. 2 million dogs and 1. Lion cats)” (Pet Statistics). By requiring all of the rescue animals to be fixed, it reduces these numbers. Most of the animals brought in are ones that have been found on the streets, which come from strayed litters. It’s a means to population control of these pets. As examine the room I notice once again, it’s a clean and non-smelling room, which is much to my surprise. There were multiple cages, cat toys, litter boxes, food and water dishes everywhere, but all clean and organized. In the closet Indigo grabbed cat carriers and began loading cats into them.

They ere placed by the front door as we headed to the back yard next. Roughly fifteen small breed dogs were housed in a kennel, it was a large area allowing plenty of running area for the animals as well as many squeaky toys and bowls of food and water. As with the cats we did the same with the dogs. Once all of the cats and dogs were ready we loaded them into Careen’s truck. Putting what we could in the truck and some in the bed of the truck. There was a final check to ensure all paperwork was also grabbed by Karen for all the animals, then it was off to Petcock’s adoptions.

Getting to Petcock roughly twine eleven to noon, We unloaded the carriers from Careen’s truck into the store. There is an area already set up imminently to the right when walking in the doors which Karen and Indigo went straight too. This area is specifically for adoptions. Walking over I already see some cats in the cages. Curious about them, I ask Indigo which tells me they are a part of their rescue. They are only able to do events on weekends, which through the week they leave a certain amount animals at Petcock to try to adopt. Taking roughly a half hour, all the cages and animals were set up.

Making sure none of the cages looked over crowded with animal. With everything set up, it reminded me of a shelter, just cleaner and with less smell. This brought me to a question for Indigo, why Petcock? Why not do this at the shelter? And lastly why isn’t the shelter helping with adopting animals? Indigo gave me an answer much what the humane society stats,” 6 to 8 million-?Number of cats and dogs entering shelters each year,” and that,” 3 to 4 million-?Number cats and dogs adopted from shelters each year” (Pets by the Numbers). That means only about half f the animals going into a shelter are also walking out.

The other half sit and cause over crowded spaces in the shelters, leading to many being euthanized even though nothing is physically wrong with them. Many shelters just don’t have the funds to take care of them all, and this is where rescues like Vista come in to try and save the day. A second chance for hope of a new home. With every person that came up to look at the animals, Karen and Indigo answered all the questions asked. Many which surprised me because of all the animals, they knew all the animals by name, and injuries or conditions hey have, as well as breed and facts about the type of breed. They did not push people to adopt.

They wanted to inform, so that these animals can find a good home. Another approach Karen took was even explaining the benefits pets have on their owners. Looking at web MD, pets have actually enhanced physical conditions in a good way, such as,” In one study of 240 married couples, pet owners had lower blood pressure and lower heart rates during rest than people who did not own a pet” (Nazarene). Karen and indigo used these facts to push the idea that people are notes benefiting the animals by adopting, rather that the animals help them life healthy life, and this is just one of twenty eight studies on benefits.

Throughout the day, Indigo maintain the cages by cleaning, feeding, and refilling water to the cages. It was important because individuals would look less at the cages that were a mess and more at the ones with everything neat. Perhaps this gives individuals a thought that the animal would be destructiveness or messes. Also Indigo rotated many of the animals throughout the day, as cages that were below waste level received less attention. There were strategies needed for ensuring al the animals were given the same attention. When one couple was ready to adopt a small cat, indigo explained paper work that had to be signed.

There was a charge to adopted, but later learned that the fees go towards the required spay and neuter policy. It also helped cover all shots and vaccines needed. The couple would just have to take the cat in on specific days to Suntanned veterinary clinic, were the shots would be given at no additional charge. The remainder cost helped fund Vista Rescue by paying for animal products such as food, litter, and medicinal. The rice was not much different than the cost of an adoption fee through an animal shelter. In fact, once the adoption was complete, Indigo even helped the couple finding what they needed at Petcock for their new cat.

An added advantage to Petcock for allowing a rescue to hold its events there. Like Vista Rescues with this single adoption, there are other rescues such as Animal ague of America, the claimed to,” have saved over 1. 000,000 lives, and our advocacy and partnerships have helped to save even more lives. ” (Rescue and Adoption). Even though it is a small number compare to numbers of over population in shelters, groups like these together make a huge impact by raising awareness and taking action with steps of lowering the over population.

The last thing any rescue, or any one for that matter, is to see a poor animal put to sleep for no reason, especially our volunteer Indigo. As the even rapped up to a close, all of the reverse process of putting the animals in the cages began. Everything was cleaned, sanitized, and prepped for the next day. None of the workers at Petcock ever stopped to talk to Karen or Indigo the entire time. There was no reason to, Vista Rescue is a well-run on-profit organization that does not take advantage of the opportunity that Petcock is giving them.

They keep it clean so they can continue to come back and do what they love. They loaded the truck and headed home. Once at the house and after unloading, Karen let the cats roam the house and the dogs outside. This was different from that Of a shelter, it was a temporary home that felt just like that to these animals, home. One kitten was adopted, but in the eyes of the volunteers of Vista Rescues, the day was a big success. Indigo said with pride,” All it takes is just one adoptions, that’s one less animal stuck n an overcrowded shelter.

It’s an animal that has a new family. It’s not like their just pets, they become an actual part of our families” (Halverson). This is why Indigo puts in so many hours volunteering. It’s not a hobby, it doesn’t make her money, and there’s no added benefit to herself directly. It’s taking these poor animals and giving them a second chance, a chance for a long full life with a loving family who will bond for many years to come. This is what makes us a community, its bringing life and joy to all the families of this city.

Stakeholder essay

Define the terms and state the mission, vision, objectives, goals and core competencies of Toyota. (Outcome 1. 1) Mission The Mission defines the purpose and nature of the business (Schools, Johnson 1997). The Mission of Toyota is to provide a safe and sound journey and in the next 5 years is to minimize environmental impact by advancing technologically to reduce carbon emissions and enforcing quality and reliability with a commitment to continuous improvement in all its activities.

Toast’s ultimate goal is to improve the safety of its customers. Other goals include providing customers with high quality parts and goods by putting the customer first and genuinely listening to and espousing to customers feedback and responding to these speedily and easily. As an employer, Toast’s goals are to provide stable employment with fair working conditions, create a safe and healthy working environment, and be conscientious in its manufacturing and in the development of its staff, creating an environment for staff to be proud that they work for Toyota.

Another goal of Toast’s is to establish a low carbon society as well as a recycle-based society (www. Toyota-global. Com). Objectives Objectives are a more tangible and specific and measurable description of the goals. Objectives are more short term and are consistently in need of updating. They direct the goals. They should be SMART, specific, measurable, attainable, and relevant and time bound. For example, increasing sales in developed countries as a goal is translated into the objective of maintaining a domestic production of 3 million units per year.

Goals and objectives are linked, for example, a goal of Toyota would be to enter into countries with an emerging middle class, such as the emerging BRICK (Brazil, Russia, China, India) markets, the objective pertaining to this is to boost sales of 3. 7 million units in Hess countries to 5 million (vim. Japanese. Co. JP). Core Competencies A core competency is at the heart of what the Company does best. It is this ability that gives it advantage over the competition.

Knowing its core competency is a valuable tool to have when releasing new products or going into new markets (Johnson, Schools 1997). The core competencies of Toyota are its cost leadership strategies in Its design and build processes. It has the ability and the resources and manufacturing units which operate with efficiency keeping the cost of cars low and affordable for the mass consumer racket. IQ . 2 Describe the key issues encountered by Toyota in strategic planning. (Outcome 1 . ) A strategic plan brings into fruition the Company’s vision, goals, mission and strategy or future direction for a set time period. Strategic planning is one way of dividing responsibilities by the top level of management to other departments as separate units make sure tasks and projects are fulfilled correctly. The organization informs each department separately of what to do, giving them step by step instructions. These instructions feed their way down the hierarchy of the corporate structure.

One of the key problems with strategic planning is that there is very little room for feedback from lower level staff to trickle upwards to management. There is also very little interdepartmental communication, thus hindering collaboration. As the whole company is supposedly working towards the same end goals this may cause repetition, hence wastage Of time and energy and resources. In many cases those designing the strategic plans know nothing about the subject they are instructing.

If Leadership was united with workers at Toyota and there was open communication between the internal implants department and management, the recall of 8 million faulty cars in 201 0 may never have occurred. Toast’s strategic management did not interact with the labor force (Loti, 2010). IQ . 3 Compare and contrast two different planning techniques which you could apply to Toyota. (Outcome 1. 3) In order to plan which products to focus on and how to allocate resources, it is necessary for Toyota to look at its various product lines to Identify which ones are generating profit and which ones require investment.

A tool useful in this scenario is the Boston Matrix, otherwise known sans the BCC Matrix (Boston Consultancy Group). In this, the two factors considered are Market growth, (vertical grid) and market share (horizontal grid). This grid is broken down into 4 segments. If the item is selling well and the sales in its product area are still growing rapidly for example the phone 5 it is a star, which means it has a high market share and high market growth.

Its costs will reduce over time. The cash cow is an item which is now requires little investment but generates sales easily die to its high market share already being established , it’s in the mature stage of the product lifestyle so does not have high market growth the product his in growing market but reached an impasse and its not known whether the popularity of the product with take a nosedive or suddenly improve but with significant investment it is a question mark.

The dogs are items which have a low market share as well as low market growth. They may be costing the company money and it is necessary to consider divestment or liquidation as an option Monsoons, Schools 1997). Boston Matrix for Toyota cars. MARKET SHARE HIGH LOW HIGH MARKET GROWTH LOW STARS Lexus Pries Hybrid Land Cruiser SUB QUESTION MARKS Low cost affordable cars in emerging markets such as India Cell Vehicles) Auras- hybrid

Campy-hybrid New fuel models such as Bio- fuel cars, solar and hydrogen powered cars CASH COWS Campy Corolla RAVE 4 Dadaists DOGS Estimate (minivan)-withdrawn Us par- withdrawn MR. Corona-withdrawn Crown-withdrawn Stakeholder Mapping The stakeholder mapping tool, is like the BCC Matrix in that it is based on a grid system, but it differs in that instead of looking at the product, it looks at the stakeholders.

On the horizontal axis lies the level of interest a stakeholder has, and on the vertical axis lays the level of power that a stakeholder has. A stakeholder who has a low level of interest and a low level of power does not once the strategy makers as much as a stakeholder with a high level of interest but a low level of power. However a stakeholder with a high power and low interest would concern the strategists and management more and they would strive to keep these stakeholders satisfied.

In the same way, those with a high level of interest in addition to a high level or power would concern the strategists the most and they would create strategies that would please these stakeholders the most as they are the “key players” ( Johnson Schools 1997) A stakeholder power interest matrix is below for Toyota. Level of Interest LOW

POWER A MINIMAL EFFORT environmental activists non car users B KEEP INFORMED Indonesian customers Small shareholders Potential customers C KEEP SATISFIED Employees Government Global society, Local community Customers in established markets such as USA, Europe and Japan D KEY PLAYERS Business partners Investors, Bankers Managers, Coos, Directors Large shareholders Both the stakeholder mapping power/interest matrix and the BCC Matrix make things clearer when planning, however both are limited in their scope. For these tools to be of relevance, a separate BCC Matrix would have to be done for each market entered into.

Both must be reviewed regularly as factors change. For example, in the BCC matrix factors could be introduced that means the cash cow such as the RAVE 4 are now redundant because the market demands only echo-cars. Equally, on the Power/interest matrix, if Indonesian markets continue to rise, they may move from the B to the C category as they will make up a higher percentage of Toast’s profits thus having more power. Q. 1 Conduct an organizational audit by carrying out a SOOT analysis on Toyota. (Outcome 2. 1) Strengths The strengths of Toyota are in its history; it has been built up over several cascades and has a brand image.

Toyota pioneered a holistic system integrated throughout the business called Toyota Production System, which eliminates waste of time, money, materials, energy of the workers and lag time. It includes the systems of Awaken, Six Sigma and Just in time, giving it the advantage over European companies not using this technique. Over other Japanese rivals such as Ionians, it has developed hybrid and fuel cell technology and is seen as a leader in innovation and beings sustainable and taking care of the environment.

Its focus on being a good employer means hat people stay at the Company for a long time and it has a low staff turnover so the company is stable. Weaknesses Toyota recalled around 8 million cars early in 201 0, and then (Loti, 201 0) more than 180, 000 cars were recalled the following year. Toyota has suffered from brand damage in the mind of the consumers, many of which are now looking to its competitors, Honda and Ionians. The market share of Toyota in developed markets such as Europe and North America are declining. In China the company deliveries in the first 11 months of the 2012 fell 3. Percent to 749,600 units. (Mukluk, 201 2) Opportunities The hybrid market and the new plants that Toyota has opened in this area as well as its Fuel Cell Vehicles division puts it ahead of its competitors. It now has a commitment to be the leader in road technology safety, conducting human model tests known as T HUMS with 1600 collision tests annually. (Toyota-global. Com). The power of its suppliers means that Toyota can work with the local communities building a sustainable way for them to live, thus gaining the trust of the global community at large.

The new markets in developing countries including Manner and Indonesia, in which Toyota has n estimated market share of 40% and the launch of the low cost models in India Threats Sales of Honda in the US are growing by 10. 5 per cent (Young, 2014) There is a general decline in the automotive industry in the North American market (Young, 2014). The fluctuation of the Yen could value Toast’s assets and net value lower than it is perceived, causing problems in cash flow. Q. 2 Evaluate Toast’s business environment by doing a PESTLE analysis. (outcome 2. 2) There are several factors to consider when doing an external audit of the market.

These are political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors and are collectively known as the PESTLE analysis. Political The political factors to consider include government policies and regulations as well as government stability and determine which countries can work well together. Trade policies in many developing countries have opened up and reduction of tariffs has made it easier. In Indonesia, Toast’s fastest growing market, the government introduced tax breaks for low cost echo-friendly cars, which is Toast’s specialization.

Economic The economic factors to consider are GNP trends, inflation, disposable income of various markets and labor rates. Toyota has a high market share in developing countries where many automobile financing companies have established themselves leading a higher number of loans being allocated for the purchase of vehicles as well as a growing middle class emerging in these countries. The increase in fuel prices since 2008 has resulted in the development of hybrid cars and also added to the urgency for them to become the mainstream by the general public (mad. Toyota;global. Mom). Sociological This includes population demographics, social mobility, lifestyle changes and consumer demands and levels of education. Consumers are becoming more informed of where their vehicle comes from and how it is produced. They are more aware of issues such as safety and sustainability as well as how staff is treated in various parts of the world. It is good for Toast’s reputation that they profess to take good care of workers and listen to them. That the Company is claiming its ultimate goal of zero casualties is certainly a boost to the public image of Toyota.

Technological This involves government spending on research, new developments and discoveries and the speed of technology transfer (Johnson and Schools, 1997). Low carbon technology is becoming a norm. The use of electric battery powered cars is increasing due to an increase in charging stations. Today electronics count for more than 25% of a vehicles value and this is estimated to reach 40% in the near future. This means technology of the car is becoming of increasing value to consumers (drivingworkforcechange. Org).

The automotive industry has an excellent track record in innovation, investing 4 per cent of its annual turnover in research and development (Baseball 2012). Environmental Factors included are those surrounding the external environment such as environmental offsets, climate change, weather and geographical location. Zero congestion charges being set by the government for echo cars in London. In the US, new standards were proposed last year in 2013, to reduce emissions of sulfur gas. These new rules will make it more transparent and easier for automobile companies to set benchmarks for emissions (Goldenberg, 2013).

Legal This includes safety laws, safety standards and labor laws. The European Commission (CE) sets legal frameworks which are rigid and must be adhered to regarding emissions. EX. guidelines have been a key factor in fostering a lose co-operation between car companies, their suppliers and the E, with large sums of public money committed to joint, pre-competitive strategic research. Q. 3 Define and explain the significance of a stakeholder analysis. (Outcome 2. 3) A stakeholder is anyone who has an interest in the business and a Stakeholder analysis is the identification of the Company’s key stakeholders.

It looks at internal stakeholders, external stakeholders as well as connected stakeholders. Internal stakeholders are those who are within the company such as employees, co-workers, managers and Coos, external stakeholders re those which are outside the business, such as local community, press, potential customers and potential employees as well as would be customers and connected shareholders are institutions or individuals such as banks, lenders, trade institutions, suppliers and large scale buyers or sub contractors, partners or manufacturers.

A stakeholder analysis can help strategists to assess a project environment and inform them of current situations, in the knowledge of each stakeholders position. The Business can therefore be more effective in communicating to each stakeholder. A stakeholder analysis also allows Toyota to be aware of the extent of information each stakeholder needs, as well as how satisfied they need to keep each shareholder and how much allocated resources to invest in each stakeholder group. To do this an audit in the form of stakeholder mapping can be carried out. A stakeholder power interest matrix is below for Toyota. Urge shareholders Stakeholders in the A Category These stakeholders may not be communicated with directly and may only come to hear about the activities of Toyota via third parties or the press Stakeholders in the B category These stakeholders will be kept informed byway of annual reports or swelters Stakeholders in the C category These stakeholders are important as they hold power but they are not very interested so they must be informed prior to projects being passed and involved while taking decisions Stakeholders in the D category Stakeholders in this category will give approval for projects to be passed.

Q. 1 Define four strategic Options available and explain how they may be implemented within Toyota. (Outcome 3. 1) Market Entry Strategy for Toyota Four strategic options for Toyota or any business are organic growth, growth by merger, acquisition or by building strategic alliances. Organic Growth This is a method of growth which focuses on the Company’s existing business, rather than merging with or partnering with another business. It is ideal for those businesses who want to maintain their corporate integrity and avoid the dilution of values that comes with merging.

It is an ideal strategy for market penetration; it could be used in market development as well as product development. It is said to be risky for product or market diversification (Johnson, Schools, 2009). Growth by Merger This occurs when a company combines itself with another company, merging al its assets, it is usually 2 equal companies mutually combining to form one legal entity. The intention of a growth by merger is that the resulting combination of products, people and pipelines will take the business to new heights. For example, in 1 998, American Automaker, Chrysler Corp.. Urged with German Automaker, Daimler Benz to form Demolisher’s (Gonzalez, 2001). The benefits include an expanded customer list, resource pool including equipment, facilities and staff, not to mention cash flow. Other benefits include an increase in market share. However, management can rove difficult as the two companies involved may have different company cultures or values and may not be flexible in their approach. Growth by Acquisition This involves a takeover, or the purchase Of a smaller company or companies by a larger company.

An example of an acquisition would be how the Walt Disney Corporation bought Paxar Animation Studios in 2006. Building Strategic Alliances A strategic alliance is an agreement between two or more players to build resources, strength and knowledge against competition. It is a way of entering a new market while offsetting the weaknesses and threats and must infinite both parties. In 2011 , Toyota and BMW formed a strategic alliance to enter the fuel cell and power train market for electric cars (Whether, 2012).

Neither company merged assets, and retained individual management Substantive Growth Strategies for Toyota A company can achieve substantive growth by integration with another business. There are a few ways to do this. A company can integrate with a business that specializes in activities which are further back in the value chain. This is known as backward integration. For example, in Toyota this could be integration with a company that specializes in production. Horizontal integration occurs when a company integrates with a company at the same stage of production in the value chain For example, if Toyota were to merge with Ionians.

Forward integration involves a Company integrating with a business whose activities lay further forward in the value chain. In Toast’s case this would apply if it were to take over or merge with repair and service shops and showrooms. Forward and backward integration are called vertical integration. The disadvantages with these can be that the new alliance can make the supply chain less flexible to demand and the two companies can come co-dependent on each other, failing to reap rewards from a diverse base of suppliers.

It could also lose loyalty from customers as it changes its business practices to meet the other company’s. Unrelated diversification is also known as conglomerate diversification. This occurs when a Company moves beyond its current industry usually by acquiring or integrating with another company that has no relationship whatsoever to its current output. For example, Proctor and Gamble owns hundreds of unrelated brands in the Fast Moving Consumer Goods market. Toast’s lack of expertise in other areas would suggest that this is not the way for them.

Critical Thinking essay

Using this method, one is encouraged to ask themselves 10 questions that will help with weeding out things such as false statements (fallacies), bias in pinion, omitted information, assumptions, and also help in identifying rival causes for the evidence used to support reasons. I will now be using these 10 critical thinking methods to evaluate and gain a clear perspective on a memo from Classified Holding Company of Masques discussing how beneficial funding a leadership development program for junior executives will be for the company.

What are the issues and conclusions? In Browne and Kelsey ten step method, the first step stated was to identify the issue and conclusion in an argument. The author’s elaborated on why this is of importance by stating ‘those who create web pages, blobs, editorials, books, magazines articles, or speeches are trying to change your perceptions or beliefs. For you to form a reasonable reaction to their persuasive effort, you must first identify the controversy or issue as well as the thesis and conclusion being pushed onto you. ” (Browne & Kelly,201 5 p. 3). The issue in this memo is whether or not the company should invest in a leadership development program for its junior executives. The issue here is what Brown and Kelly calls a prescriptive issue. Prescriptive issues are issues that bring to question what action should be taking, what is right or wrong/ good or bad (Browne & Kelly 2015). The writer of this memo Mr.. Ravish is attempting to convince the readers of this memo Ms. Cynthia Castle (CEO, CHEM.) that a decision to fund this sort of program would be a wrong and bad decision for the company.

In trying to convince Ms. Cynthia Castle, Mr.. Ravish came to the conclusion that the company should not invest in any initiative that remotes sending its junior executives to any form of leadership training. He supported this conclusion with his personal beliefs, opinions, statistics gathered from surveys, and theories from authorities. What are the reasons? The second step is Browne and Kelly’s critical thinking method is to identify reasons used to support the conclusion. The authors encourage us to always ask the question ‘Why? “If a statement doesn’t answer the question, why does the write or speaker believe that? Then its not a reason. ” After asking the question why to Mr.. Ravioli’s conclusion, I was able to locate the answers in his reasons. 1. The company has been prosperous without investing in development programs and will be in the future without such programs. 2. A survey completed by him showed that majority Of the current senior staff with the exception of one also agreed to the notion that leadership is something you are born with and can’t be thought.

He also supported this reasoning by listing powerful historical figures like, Winston Churchill, Mother Theresa, and Martin Luther king Jar, all of which he believed assessed and were born with leadership traits. 3. He stated a personal belief that all leaders have a tall physical stature. He supported this with favorable data listing heights of past American great leaders over 6 feet. In doing so, he tries to lead the CEO of the company to also believe that one’s height is connected to their capability of being leaders. 4.

He believes that sending junior insurance executives to leadership training will trigger a rise in employee training demands that could cause an unaffordable expense for the company. No proof was provided to support this claim. He then stated that due to that reason, “it will be more logical to select and recruit those with leadership traits than to try and develop those who are not” (A. Arrivals, p. 2) Which words of phrases are ambiguous? The third step of the critical thinking method is to identify ambiguous words or phrases used. Browne and Kenney described ambiguity as words that have multiple different meaning (Brown & Kelley, p. 5). The words prosperous, successful, and effective are example of ambiguous words used in the memo. Mr.. Ravish in is memo stated that CHEM. has been “prosperous” without anyone of its senior executives having to attend any leadership development programs. The use of prosperous in this case is ambiguous because the word itself has multiple meanings. It could be interpreted as having abundance of wealth and success or just reporting small profits. In this memo, the readers are being lead to believe that the company already has abundance of wealth without supporting any leadership development program.

Using critical thinking one might interpret that same statement as, the company is making mall profits but there’s room to potentially earn more by investing in the leadership development programs for its employees. The memo also states that Chum’s has been “Successful and Effective” without such program. The use of the words “successful and effective” is ambiguous because those two words have different measures depending on the person making the evaluation. What one person considers as being SUccessfUl and effective can be considered as failure to another depending on their goals and measures. What are the values and descriptive assumptions?

Nutrition essay

The situation that will be evaluated in this analysis will be; is there a region of the United States in which childhood obesity tends to be more prominent? This will be done to show areas in which the Government, insurance companies and healthcare institutions should focus campaigns for healthy living to reduce future healthcare cost. The data that will be utilized to answer this business question will be the percent of children ages ten to seventeen that are overweight or obese in each of the fifty states.

The states will then be categorized into their respective regions of East, South, Midwest, and West. It is important to look into the regions to see if there is a trend of obesity within a region, as this region should be the focal point of Government, insurance companies, and healthcare institutions to launch a healthy living campaign. Conducting such campaigns in a region of most need will in the long run, reduce healthcare cost because children will mature into health conscious individual with less preventable diseases.

Bal. Summary of Data Again the data that will be used in this analysis is the percentage of children ten to seventeen of which are overweight of obese in each of the fifty States ND the District of Columbia. The States will then be put into regions to identify a region that shows more overweight or obese children. The data for this analysis will come from “The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015). “Len order to compare information their must be baseline in which to compare the date to.

For this analysis the base line will be the average percentage of children overweight or obese for the entire united State; the average is 31. 3 percent. Anything over this average can be attributed with raising the average and therefore in need of correction. For this analysis however the States will be put into regions and the regions will be compared to locate a trend of obesity by region of the county to implement campaigns of healthy living in those areas.

When the states are listed in way of highest percentage to lowest, at first glance can be seen that there are many of the Southern States in the top ten, to include Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina being the top three, respectively. Outside of this it is difficult to locate another trend just by looking at a chart from lowest to highest percent, which is why a Cluster Analysis will be conducted to further investigate any trends, which will be discussed later in the report. Another piece of important information to take from the chart is that the highest percentage is 39. Percent (Louisiana) and the lowest being 22. 1 percent (Utah), which is a substantial difference that will hopefully be sorted out through the Cluster analysis. 82. Graphical Display Location percent Of Overweight or Obese Children 1. Louisiana 39. 8% 2. Mississippi 39. 7% 3. South Carolina 39. 2% 4. Arizona 36. 7% 5. Texas 36. 6% 6. North Dakota 35. 8% 7. Kentucky 35. 7% 8. Alabama 35. 0% 8. District of Columbia 8. Georgia 11. Tennessee 4. 1% 12. Arkansas 33. 9% 12. Oklahoma 14. Illinois 33. 6% 14. West Virginia 16. Nevada 33. 2% 17. New Mexico 32. % 18. Michigan 32. 6% 19. New York 32. 4% 20. Delaware 32. 0% 21. Maryland 31. 6% 22. Indiana 31. 5% 23. North Carolina 31. 4% United States 31. 3% 24. Ohio 30. 8% 25. Massachusetts 30. 5% 26. California 30. 4% 27. Kansas 30. 2% 28. Alaska 29. 9% 29. Virginia 29. 8% 30. Connecticut 29. 7% 31. Maine 29. 5% 32. Montana 29. 0% 33. Nebraska 28. 9% 34. Wisconsin 28. 8% 35. Missouri 28. 4% 36. Iowa 28. 3% 36. Rhode Island 38. Idaho 27. 8% 39. Florida 27. 5% 40. Hawaii 27. 4% 41. Minnesota 27. 2% 2. Wyoming 26. 7% 43. Pennsylvania 26. 5% 43. South Dakota 45.

Oregon 26. 4% 46. Washington 26. 2% 47. New Hampshire 26. 0% 48. New Jersey 24. 7% 49. Vermont 24. 5% 50. Colorado 23. 1% 51. Utah 22. 1% (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015) The chart that IS presented above is the data that was gathered for this analysis. It is listed from highest percentage of obese children to the lowest percentage. This information was gathered from the Kaiser Family Foundation to be the data the help answer they presented question (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015). 83. Advantages and Disadvantages of the

Data Gathering Methodology When gathering data there is inevitably advantages and disadvantages to the data that is collected. That statement hold true in this instance as well. One advantage of the methodology for collecting this data was how user friendly the information is. The table that is above is provided along with several other ways to view the data. For instance, the data can be looked at high to low as presented in this report, but also low to high. The table can also be looked at alphabetically for ease in being able to locate a certain State. These features are both an advantage to he gathering of this data.

Looking at them in high to low ascending order as presented allows hypotheses to be made about the information before formally utilizing the Cluster analysis. Also since this information is not about individual state but is however about regions of the Country, having the states in alphabetical order was advantages to completion of the analysis. One disadvantage for the methodology of gathering this data is its simplicity, meaning it is a hard percentage of overweight of obese children by state. It does not take into account socioeconomic standing of individuals, the means to live healthy, or the lifestyles of the individuals.

All of which can affect the overweight and obesity of the ten to seventeen year old children that exist in those systems. This information is however a great place to Start to see if a region does in fact tend to be more obese, or if it simply a County wide pandemic. If a region is found to be more obese more data gathering could then be conducted to answer such questions. Therefore as shown for this given data analysis the data gathering methodology is advantageous because of its ease of use and presentation, and also has a disadvantage of eyeing to broad. CLC .

Description of Analysis Technique The analysis technique that will be utilized to answer the question, Is there a trend of childhood (ten to seventeen years old) obesity regionally in the united States? Will be the Cluster analysis. The reason for choosing the Cluster analysis is used to group people or things together into meaningful clusters, in which these clusters share similar characteristics and differ from the other clusters in which they are being compared to. The similar characteristics in this analysis will be where they are regionally in the United States.

By putting each state into a cluster of other states within their respective regions it will become evident if there is in fact a correlation between obesity and region in the Country. If this analysis shows a relationship between children being overweight and obese in a certain region the Government, Insurance Companies, and Healthcare Systems can then implement healthy living campaigns focused in on the given region to improve childhood health and as they mature to be adults they can resume these habits as well as pass them on to their children, which will in the cut healthcare cost in the future.

Another reason of why the Cluster Analysis will be appropriate for this analysis will be that the information can be held on to and compared to future data that will show if the techniques are working or not, and if they are then the next at risk region can be approached with the same campaign approach as they will have been proven to work. CA. Output and Calculations The output for the cluster analysis was simply putting the raw data in order according to regions as described.

Then once that information was in the appropriate order it was simply a matter of putting the data into a simple “XX” rape and evaluating the clusters, looking for trends. Below is the way in which the states were grouped together in their similar respective regions. East South Midwest West Maine West Virginia 33. 60% Ohio 30. 80% Montana 29. 00% New Hampshire 26. 00% Virginia 29. 80% Michigan 32. 60% Wyoming 26. 70% Vermont 24. 50% Tennessee 34. 10% Illinois Colorado 23. 10% Massachusetts 30. 50% North Carolina 31 . 40% Indiana 31 . 50% New Mexico 32. 80% New York 32. 40% Kentucky 35. 70% owe 28. 30% Alaska 29. 0% Rhode Island Florida 27. 50% Incision 28. 80% Hawaii 27. 40% Connecticut 29. 70% Georgia 3500% Minnesota 2720% Idaho 27. 0% New Jersey 24. 70% South Carolina 39. 20% South Dakota 26. 50% Arizona 36. 70% Delaware 32. 00% Alabama 35. 00% North Dakota 35. 80% Utah 22. 10% Maryland 31. 60% Mississippi 39. 70% Nebraska 28. 90% Washington 26. 20% Pennsylvania Louisiana 39. 80% Kansas 30. 20% Oregon 26. 40% District Of Columbia Arkansas 33. 90% Missouri 28. 40% California 30. 40% Oklahoma Nevada 33. 20% Texas 36. 60% This information, as stated was then converted to a cluster analysis chart which can be seen in section ODL . CA.

Justification of Analysis Technique The justification for using the cluster analysis for this report was because of he large quantity of information. This large amount of information can, with this analysis technique be put into groups of similarity, which is this case is the location regionally to be compared to the other groups, in order to determine if there is a trend of a certain regions children being more predominantly obese than the others. The second reason the cluster analysis was utilized was to help with the follow-up action that would be taken if childhood obesity were discovered to be more severe in a given region.

Meaning that; in this case the south region was shown to have more obese children. The government, insurance companies, and healthcare institutions now have a target audience, being the southern region of the United States, in which to project their healthy life style campaign. By focusing efforts in a group which is similar will allow for greater success in accomplishing the goal, which in this case is to promote healthy living in children, leading to lower future healthcare cost and concerns. CA.

Advantages and disadvantages of the Analysis Technique NO analysis technique is perfect and will fully answer every question and concern that is presented. This statement is true in this case as well, as the luster analysis has both advantages and disadvantages. The advantage obtained by utilizing the cluster analysis is that large amounts of information can be placed into sub groups of which they share similarities. By do this a decision maker can look at large amounts of information and see how it all correlates by analyzing the cluster chart. This was most certainly the case in this particular report.

Fifty-one pieces of data were converted into four groups in which it became clear that the southern states as whole were in most need of intervention, as it pertains to childhood obesity. The fact that he south region is the most obese is made perfectly clear when looking at the chart. This was not the case when one looks at the graph of data; when doing this one sees that yes, the southern region has some high percentages, but that is true in all of the regions. However in looking at the graph the southern regions clearly outnumber the reset as a whole.

This is another advantage of the cluster analysis; it can make information evident that may not have been so previously. The disadvantage of the cluster analysis is that it only gives you an idea of what to further investigate. It is east to see that the out region has an issue with childhood obesity, the question now is why is this? Further more specific information must be determined in Order for one to bring about change. Another disadvantage of a cluster analysis is that there is no “rules” in reading or creating one.

They are mostly done by way of teaching ones ways to the next utilizing rule of thumb type approach. This can lead to the same information being presented differently depending on the techniques used, which can lead to inconsistency. D 1. Data Analysis Results When looking at the cluster analysis above it is made evident that the Southern Region of the Ignited States shows a tendency to be of greater percentage of children overweight or obese. Most all of the other regions seem to be relatively in the same area, with a few outliers which are the extremes and can be disregarded.

It is clear that there are more States in the Southern Region that have high percentages of children that are overweight, and therefore should be the focal point for healthy life style campaigns, the lead to a reduction in future healthcare cost. DO. Data Analysis Limitations When conducting an analysis that is driven by data it is important to insider the limitations that are present with the data. It is impossible fully answer every question in an analysis and recognizing the short comings of the data will allow for further investigation and lead to accuracy. The data utilized for this analysis is not an exception to this concept.

A limitation in this data is that the percentages presented are a whole states average. However this would be of great usefulness to investigate the state in different regions, as certain regions can be the contributors as where the other regions have minimal obese children. In all states there are areas of poverty, and areas of lath, this data does not show this type Of information, however this could be a contributing factor to the childhood and adolescent obesity of the state. The second limitation of this data that will be discussed is this data is for one year.

As one can see by the given data analysis results the Southern Region of the Ignited States is shown to be of greater childhood obesity that the other three regions. However if there was data from previous years it may show a trend in which although the Southern Region is highest it may be decreasing steadily. Also the data of past percentages may show that another egging is actually increasing dramatically and perhaps that region requires the attention of the campaign. The last limitation that will be discussed in this report is that the percentages do not take into account population of the regions.

Even though the Southern Region has the highest percentage, it may only have half the number of children of which are obese or overweight compared to a higher populated area of a lower percentage. This should be considered because it could be more advantageous to present healthier life styles to the overall greater number of people in a region instead of the area of fewer individuals tit a higher percentage. There are more limitations that present themselves in the data that was collected for this analysis; however the above discussed limitations present the most substantial shortcomings.

It is important to remember that limitations do not mean that the data is useless, because this data could present a trend that could then be further investigated addressing the limitations, allowing for a more complete picture of the question to be answered, and saving money by finding a large scale trend then narrowing it in from that point. DO. Recommended Course of Action The question this analysis set out to answer was, is there a region of the United States that has a higher percentage of children whom are obese?

The answer to this question, given the result of the analysis, is the Southern Region shows a higher trend, in percentage of children ten to seventeen of whom are overweight or obese. For this reason the Southern Region should be the focal point for the Government, insurance companies, and healthcare institutions to launch a healthy living campaign. Generally it has been accepted that childhood obesity leads to increased heath concerns, and Hereford healthcare cost of those children when they mature.

However according to a study conducted by Oxford University; results have shown that overweight and obese children, when compared to normal weight children may be worst than originally believed. The obese children tend to have significantly higher blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

Person essay

Origin of Person-Centered therapy Person centered approach belongs to the humanistic approach. There are ewe famous American psychologists which developed humanistic approach and Carl Rogers is one of them (others are Abraham Moscow and Roll May). He developed theory of distress and therapeutic methods which affected strongly in psychology. His approach was called first client-centered then person-centered and it was widely different from his times thoughts and teachings. Carl Rogers was a shy and quiet child.

He appeared to be smart and for example learned to read before kindergarten age. When he started his university studies, he studied first agriculture, then joined Christian ministry. After that he started to study psychology. Sanders 201 1). It seems when considering about his life and actions that he had independently his own opinions and was ready and brave to challenge teachings and theories of his own times. He started to develop his theory about individual’s capacity as self-healer and the role of counselor.

Opposite from his times views he saw client as the expert about his own distress and counselor as a co-worker rather that expert or professional (Sanders 2011). Think it has been interesting to know about what kind of child he was as it can give an idea why he was keen about human as a self-healer and expert bout their own distress. I can think that his characters (shy and quiet) was not respected in America (as they respect small talk and outgoing people). So maybe through his own life he knew the power of organism own. External world does not know accurately what is going inside other human.

Actualization tendency People have naturally need for fulfillment to reach out for the better situation, to enhance and develop itself and their lives. Roger called this the actualization tendency and he meant by this about the tendency how the organism express itself and how the organism become itself and it is the indecency that moves organism toward enhancement and development. Roger also believed that if the right conditions are provided healing will happen. (Sanders 2006). In the therapeutic he introduced 6 condition which need to be present that positive change will happen.

During the infancy and childhood colonization shapes personality and organism’s actualization. It means experiences and conditions provided for individual. When something is not quite ideal or is harmful it will cause distress and anxiety (Sanders 2006). Personally agree with it as it is easy and simply to understand that if psychological and physical environment are not opportune and ideal for example as Rogers describes free from judgment, full of unconditional love and safety it will certainly affect to individual’s psychological wellbeing and development.

I am sure about it as I know it from my own experience. Have grown up without unconditional love with judgmental single parent and it made me very withdrawn as a child. I was afraid to actuality myself when was child and teenager. I was however lucky that had capacity to think and evaluate my own situation even if I was distressed and soon I realized that have not done anything wrong and have tots of strengths and resources (and I realized that by myself without therapy! So Rogers is right about self-healing).

Another American psychologist, Abraham Moscow introduced hierarchy of needs which would lead to fulfillment of unique potential what he called self- actualization needs. He proposed that every level of hierarchy needs to happen that next level is possible. Levels are from the bottom to the top: Physiological needs (food, drink, rest, sex), safety needs (free from danger, feel secure), social needs (friendship, love and acceptance by other people), Psychological deeds (esteem, to achieve to be competent, gain approval) and finally self- actualization needs (fulfillment of unique potential). Sanders 2011). They are all important needs and sure, missing of those will cause distress and effect on individual’s ability to cope, but personally don t agree with his theory that previous level must be fulfilled that next level will be possible. For example I think that human can adapt on different situation and actuality themselves even if the situation is not the best possible or ideal. Sure some basic things like food and safety need to be present. But things are not, from my opinion, o “black and white” as I found Mason’s hierarchy of needs proposed.

I can give example from my own life where I have sometimes really lived on property eating only bread with butter. It was not ideal and far from what enjoyed and needed for decent food, but was able to cope and accept it as I had other things in my life like friends (and also knew that my poverty was only temporary) from my family. So some of bottom level needs was not fulfilled but I was still able to actuality myself and be positive for my future, From the importance of ideal conditions leads easily to Rorer’s 6 conditions of therapy.

As Rogers put client the center of healing propose and positive change, Rogers proposed 6 important conditions which from his opinion must occur in therapeutic relationship that therapeutic change will happen. Conditions 1 Psychological contact Roger consider that people much be in psychological contact with each other that they can communicate with each other and therapeutic relationship will occur. (Sanders 2006, Sanders, Franklin &Wilkins 2009) It is quite hard to describe what psychological contact really is.

There is different type of contact, but simply to say psychological contact occur when woo people share the same moment, same reality and are aware about each other’s presence (Sanders 2006). Rogers thought that psychological contact is all or nothing, on-off situation. (Sanders 2006). Personally don’t agree with that. Because there is different kind of psychological contact, they can also from my opinion occur in different kind of level, be stronger or milder. Condition 2 Client incongruence Therapeutic relationship includes a client who has come to seek help.

The client has some kind of distress and he needs to be aware about his situation and problems, about his incongruence. In some situations if client doesn’t come from his own will, for example if he is “forced” to have therapy by his partner for sake of relationship problem. In that situation the client may night honestly believe on his incongruence (he is just going to therapy because somebody else wants it) and in that case changes might not happen because the client doesn’t fully recognize his problems and changes should always come from client itself.

Client as a self- healer is the key point in person centered therapy and person centered approach is keen to hear how the client feels their distressed. Person centered therapy recognize that client is incongruence they know what is wrong. They are professionals about their distress. Person centered approach does not fit with medical model where mental health professional classifies and diagnoses mental illnesses according the type of symptoms. Sanders 2006, Sanders, Franklin &Wilkins 2009). It is very conflicting when it comes to medical model and its acceptance.

There is many opinion about it. It is true that it is very difficult to diagnose mental problems and there is benefit and disinfect about diagnose. In my opinion Sometimes client can have life when they have reason so called diagnose about their distress, but sometimes when they have diagnose (and if diagnose is wrong) it can lead them toward serious issues or mislead them other ways and prevent normal healing. I could give example about my daughter. My 16 year old daughter has fear and strong anxiety in the public places and especially in the public transport.

She could never travel alone and even when was taking her to school I needed to do hard work and encouragement that she were able to comply with traveling and sometimes she despite of my support just needed to get out of buss/train. Psychiatry gave her diagnose for agoraphobia. When I had a search about what agoraphobia means I did not fully agreed with it for my daughter, but my daughter was happy with diagnose. She felt herself anxious and vulnerable and was somehow relaxed when there Was some name for his behavior and anxious.

I sometimes noticed that she did not tried very hard to face the situations which were difficult for her. She might say, that she has agoraphobia, she can’t do certain things. Her situations became worse and she became more isolated. Then we have also another psychiatry coming for mom visits as my daughter refused to go appointments out of house. After some visits my daughter became angry and did not want to meet psychiatry anymore. She explained for me very anxiously that new psychiatry said that she has not agoraphobia and it made my daughter anxious.

My daughter understood so that the psychiatry thinks that she has not mental problems at all and when my daughter really feels distress and cannot cope easily, she was more anxious when diagnose what withdrawn. I talked with psychiatry about it and psychiatry said that she did not meant that my daughter does to have any problem so only she did not quite agree with agoraphobia. My daughter was relaxed when he heard that. This example describes how diagnose can affect to patient. It is also important how the doctor tells about his opinion.

There is certainly big conflict whether it is good to give diagnose, but for my opinion for some serious mental illnesses like stentorian it diagnose need to be given. Condition 3 Congruence A counselor needs to be congruence to help a client. It means counselor needs to be ready to help and congruence in that particular moment when he is giving therapy. He also needs to have relevant education and experience and be honest and genuine (Sanders 2006, Sanders, Franklin 2009).

Condition 4 Unconditional Positive Regard The therapist must show unconditional positive regards toward client and it is important that client feels that. It means that the client has worth of how they are and they are accepted as they are. The therapist listens client with non judgmental warmth and acceptance. (Sanders Voss). For some situations this might be hard according our vouch humanity (we are just humans and have feelings and opinions), but therapist should be aware about it and o be honest to himself and not give therapy to the client whom he judges.

For example there is heavy situations how to understand and give acceptance and unconditional positive regard to the person who has done horrible things (murders, racists etc). Some therapist might never be able to execute warmth and acceptance toward that kind of client and thus not be able to give therapy for this kind Of clients. Personally think that UPPER is very healing. Even if you can be non- judgmental and give warmth and acceptance it does not mean that you would think that it is right behavior to do those horrible things.

The reason why personally could be able to give unconditional positive regard is that I think that there must be something behind their horrible behavior. People don’t born to be cruel and if they are in that situation that they are sincerely seeking for help I would not find it difficult to give UPPER for them. This is only my opinion and major of people could think differently. That therapist can give unconditional positive regard he needs empathy which is the next of Rorer’s conditions. Condition 5 Empathy The therapist experiences understanding of client’s internal world.

Rogers gaslight that even if therapist have empathic understanding he cannot fully know what the client feels inside them. The client is expert about their own private world of feelings. For being empathic includes also communication so that client can feel that therapist has emphatic understanding. Roger gives the point that nodding or saying “l see” is not fulfillment of this conditions and is not the communication what is needed for client to reserve therapist’s empathic understanding. Sanders 2006, Sanders, F-rankled 2009) Also from my opinion it is important to be genuine about it. If the clients experience is very far from therapist’s own world it might be hard to honestly understand what client IS going through. I think it is important to make client know about therapist empathic understanding. If therapist just thinks inside himself that he have empathic clue and feeling about clients inner world it does not help client if he does not know that therapist have that empathic understanding.

Also therapist needs to know how client sense therapist’s empathic understanding. Condition 6 client perception Previous condition’s I mentioned importance that client sense therapist’s emphatic understanding. Rorer’s condition 6 put it together all clients perceptions about whole therapeutic relationship: client feels understood and accepted. Sanders 2006, Sanders, Franklin &Wilkins 2009) Even if this is the conclusion, this is somehow the basic thing. Nobody goes or continues the therapy if they are not understood and accepted.

Being non directive Rogers highlighted importance of being non directive. When client can talk the things what they like, it might be so that they talk only things which are easy for them to face. My opinion for to therapeutic change client needs to ace difficult and hard things and some type of people might not voluntary talk about those things or might hide some important information. But sure nobody can not feel better or change their life if they don’t want to, so if people don’t realize that something is wrong and can never change to better.

Benefits and good sides Of person-centered approach think that conditions what Rogers has introduced will give good chance for positive therapeutic change. Person-centered approach really values the client and as therapy is for client, it is important that the client is the center of hereby. Negative about person-centered approach When Roger proposed that when all this conditions happens then therapeutic change will happen, from my opinion all of this conditions are good and important requirements for therapeutic change, but I don’t agree that when all the conditions occur the therapeutic change will automatically happen.

Therapeutic change is hard work and this conditions does not mention about it. Also in some situations structured goal targeted thinking is important. Sometimes client needs to change their ineffectual behavior according to positive change. Person-centered approach does not agree with medical model where mental symptoms are diagnosed according to symptoms. Like gave example earlier there might be point of it, but I think sometimes diagnoses has to be given and it might beneficial also to give right treatment.

But again person-centered approach does not think that they treat, cure people from some illness. So deftly person-centered approach is not suitable for some mental health problems] Person-centered is nondestructive counseling and according to it therapist should not guide client and not chose goals for them. This kind of approach goes not work in the situations when behavior need to be changed for example to quit addiction. Or when therapist can guide client to ignore negative voices inside their head.

From my opinion there is certainly situation when client needs to be helped to see reality and to guide client to challenge things or even teach them to cope in some situations. If the client who is not feeling healthy should be every time right and guide themselves where ever they want, I think that good be some kind of scary. Conclusion can see positive sides of person-centered therapy and although it is good ND largely natural that client is the center of his/her own therapy and therapist is not a master of client’s problem this approach still from my opinion not cover all what is needed for helping the client properly.

Personal Action Potency essay

Personal action potency Young children with special need benefit from having an interpersonally approach to their care and education Social practice theory developed by Drier, contributed to the term social context, social context are recreated by the people living in HTH time and place. Social practice theories are important and personal action potency are important factors minored to understand the complexity behind the interpersonally working for the care and education for young children with SEEN First case study -? garden private day nursery Special funded SEEN places by authorities.

Contacting a EAT if have concern about a child SEEN needs, others viewed early years staff from a historical perspective which affected the interpersonally working. i. E staff in a day care are poorly qualified people who are not experts in the education sector. Therefore the communication can break down during this process. – difficult to communicate to outside agencies, found lack of support and nursery staff have to use own initiative within the setting to support these young children.

Personal action potency in the interpersonally arenas, with the potential to extend their collaboration working to other agencies for other children in the setting, was limited by lack of access in spite of competent, confident staff with high levels of personal agency in the context of the setting Second case study- chatter community preschool No automatic funning for SEEN children. Inclusive grant will have to be applied. The EAT makes a more dominate role as working within the school they will carry out most task, however they do not support the staff at all times.

Staff find it difficult when the EAT communicate directly With the parent as staff live the rapport with the parent could be damaged if they are kept in the shadow which will affect their parent and staff relationship. The setting supported other early year settings in every child’s a talker. Using direct links the have adopted over time. The school did request to be able to attend child Daniels SLOT meeting however this is not a normal procedure and the preschool have the duty to fund the personnel being sent.

Interpersonally practice was perceived to be troubled by the structure of the system. As staff sought to step out side of the interpersonally arrangements, this impacted n practice with Daniel, making it easy for the preschool and the Slat’s involved. Staff engaged more effectively in interpersonally practice with higher status SLOT, driven by their emotional bond with the child, resulting in a successful engagement of personal action potency.

Third case study – Excel children’s centre Six 15 hour places funded by the authorities, to provide one to one support for children with SEEN. Staff had established a network of communication with other agencies unlike the other two settings, this helped them Stay informed of other professionals work with the children. This showed a good example of interpersonally working. As the staff were always in contact with professionals to help the children and SINS would visit regularly keeping them updated.

This network of relationships was built up over time. The manager of the setting believes even thought a structure need to be put into place to facilitate interpersonally working it was the relationships built over time with people that enabled effective practice. The staff felt well regarded by other professionals. In this way personal action potency of staff drew not only on their own paths but also on other team members.

Jenny ‘s key worker in this case made the choices to best suite Jenny and support her through the day as other professionals agencies gave Jenny’s key worker permission to do so, stating she is qualified enough, however the other two settings early years works were in the same qualification category and had similar years of experience. All three setting had outstanding Posted grating’s. In the case studies there is evidence to suggest the strength of potential to act with influence was in fact a shared group activity. Rather then staff being perceived by outside agencies as being a lower quality setting.

What makes Language Powerful essay

Communication can be possible because language exists. This planet has over seven billion human beings and if Language seized to exist then it will affect all of us great y. Learning takes place because of Language. We are constantly learning new ways Of doing HTH nags, and Language makes the learning process easier. If you go to a supermarket, after done shoo ping you usually proceed to checkout. After checkout you are usually told how much the items you selected cost, and you proceed by paying the needed amount of money. What would Shoppe Eng be like without Language? How are questions going to be asked?

Unfortunately, there are so me people in this world who are deaf. They lack the power of hearing or lack impaired hearing. Communication through spoken work is if not impossible, then very difficult for people with d fannies. Just as engage is the key to Communication, Words are the key to Language. Writ en Language makes it easier to communicate with deaf human beings. There is also a form Of language known as “sign language” which the use of visual gestures and signs to communicate with the deaf. Unfortunately, there is also human beings who are blind. These humans are u enable to see written engage.

The only way to communicate with them is through spoken word la engage. Although they are blind, they still have perfectly sharp hearing. There are also some huh man beings who are per 3 both deaf and blind. Spoken word language is either impossible or very difficult It because of their deafness while written language is not any easier because Of their blindness. An example of a person with these traits is Helen Keller. She was the first deafening person to earn a bachelor of arts degree. In order to communicate with deafening people like Helen Keller s to be up close and personal.

We all have five senses and if the person is lacking two of the if eve, use the other three to communicate with them. Tasting, Touching, and Smelling are all differ rent forms of language. The 5 senses all contribute to make language very powerful. In one Of my readings it stated that “Until writing was invented, man lived in a caustic spaciousness, directionless, horizontals”. Although I was not alive in that it me, strongly believe that writing is the axis on which our world spins on. It makes it possible e for us to explore and do so many different things.

Businesses are prospering and the world is evildoing because of language, and writing, and communication. Writing makes it possible to ha eve little but very important things like Business contracts. There needs to be some kind of agree moment made when making a new business like who is in charge and how the business is run. Wit hoot the written form of language, these contracts will have to be spoken. Spoken word contra acts will be bad for any business because as powerful as words are, they can also be used for hard m. There can be two different stories about what the contract was actually about which will harm t he business instead of help it.

Language helps keep order in our everyday society. There are so m any people with so many great ideas about so many different things. These ideas need to be com enunciated with others because many hands do light work. The building of the Hoover Dam did don’t need only one man alone but many. Language made it possible to assign work to people and have the Hoover Dam built. Language allows communities and countries to have leaders and t searchers. Language is so powerful because you have the power over what to say. You can express yourself in your own way and your own words.

Although most use Language for good, some u e it for evil. Some people use their words to harm others and cause disruption in the society. La engage is very helpful but can also be a tool for destruction. There are different types of word ads. Positive words and negative words. Positive words such as, happy, adorable, accepted, give o UT a positive vibe. While other words like, deny, angry, annoy, give out a more negative vibe. We have resources available to us such as Television and Computers. We are able to know what i s going on around us because of the news which is shown on TV or heard on the radio.

We can al so research by sing the internet on Computers. All these resources will not be possible with out Language. Language is also used for political aspects too. Currently, there is wars and huh Unitarian crisis’ going on the world. The presidents on the countries who are not participation in the wars have to be able to communicate about different ways to help stop the war. Every coo entry has it’s national language and we have to learn a little bit of each other’s languages to keep HTH s conversation flow chart going. For Religious people, Language is also a way to communicate wit h their different types of Gods.

Marketing Foundations Notes essay

What is marketing? “The activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating communicating, delivering and exchanging offers that have value for customers, clients, partners and society at large” Marketers need to learn what customers, clients, partners and society want Marketers use information, develop new ideas and offer something unique/special Ongoing process Why study marketing?

Market orientation firms have better performance Better profits, sales volume, market share, return on investment Marketing rives economic growth/stimulates consumer demand Every employee is a stakeholder in the success of their organization The Marketing Evolution Changed from: Trade Production orientation Sales orientation (e. G. Black vs.. Blue) Market orientation (i. E. What color do you want, and matching the product) Societal market orientation (e. G. o stop consumerism) Used by small and large, those selling goods and services, private, public, profit and non-for-profit Marketing Exchange Mutually beneficial transfer of offerings of value between buyer and seller Two or more parties, each with something of value All must benefit Exchange must meet expectations of both parties What is value? “A customers overall assessment of the utility of an offering based on perception of what is received and given” Refers to the ‘total offering’ What is the market?

Group of customers with heterogeneous (different) needs and wants (e. G. Geographic, demographic, product markets) Customers Consumers Clients (customers Of Nan-for-profit) Partners (all who are involved in activities of exchange process) Society Stakeholders Individuals, organizations and groups with a rightful interest in the activities of a business Owners Employees

Customers (and clients) Partners Government Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Ethics are a set of moral principles that guide attitudes/behavior Law and regulatory bodies govern the conduct of individuals/organizations Corporate social responsibility are businesses with the obligation to act in the interests of the societies that sustain them Trade Practices Act, AC The Marketing Mix Set of variables a marketer can exercise control over in creating an offering for exchange up’s: Product, price, Promotion, place Services Marketing Mix: People, Process, Physical Evidence The Marketing Mix: Product

Product: good/service/idea offered to the market for exchange Demand: want the customer has the ability to satisfy Brand: collection of symbols creating a differentiated image Good: physical offering capable of being delivered Service: intangible offering that does not involve ownership The Marketing Mix: Price price: amount of money a business demands in exchange for its offering Willingness to pay: prepared to give in return for what they get Must consider: Production, communication and distribution costs Required profitability Partners’ requirements Competitors prices The Marketing Mix: place

Distribution: making the offering available to the customer at the right time/ place Logistics: concerned with supply/transport Supply chain: parties involved in providing all raw materials/services to get a product into the market The Marketing Mix: Promotion Promotion: activities that make potential customers/partners/society aware of and attracted to the businesses offering Examples: Advertising Loyalty scheme As Ices promotion Product trials Product may be already established, modified, new, or a form of information/ education The Marketing Environment All of the internal and external forces that affect a marketers ability to create, immunization, deliver and exchange offerings of value Environmental analysis is breaking the marketing environment into smaller parts to gain a better understanding Internal “The parts of the organization, the people and the processes used to create, communicate, deliver and exchange offerings that have value” Can be directly controlled Measured by strengths and weaknesses External “The people and processes that are outside the organization and cannot be directly controlled, only influenced” Such as when outsourcing (transferring internal function to external provider) Measured as opportunities and threats

The external environment includes: Micro-Environment “Forces within an organization’s industry that affects its ability to serve customers/clients” Customers and clients, marketers need to understand current and future needs Partners e. G. Logistics firms, financier, advertising agencies, suppliers Competitors Not directly controllable Macro-Environment PESTLE: political, economic, coloratura, technological, legal Political e. G. Effect of political issues on marketing Economic e. G. Prices, level of savings/debt, availability of credit Social and cultural affect attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, preferences, customs and epistyle and can be influenced by demographics Technology changes expectations/behaviors and affects how suppliers work Legal such as enacted legislation and regulations governing what marketing can/can’t do e. G. Air trading, consumer safety, prices, intellectual property Situational Analysis and Marketing Planning Situational analysis identifies key factors that will be used as a basis for the development of marketing strategy Return on investment, customer satisfaction, market share, brand equity (%g’s and information) SOOT analysis Marketing planning is an ongoing process that combines organization objectives and situational analyses to formulate and maintain a marketing plan that moves the organization to where it wants to be Executive summary, introduction, situational analysis, objectives, target market, marketing mix strategy, budget, implantation, evaluation, future recommendations 2. Market Research What is market research? Business activity that discovers information of use in making marketing decisions Understand (market research i. E. Willingness to pay), create (product), communicate (promotion), deliver (place) Informs about different types of decisions e. G. Reek segmentation, sales performance, attitudes and behaviors, APS Begins with an issue, discovers information, allows informed decisions about how to report and ultimately results in outcomes that match the marketing goals Involves: Defining research problem Question that research intends to answer Clearly specified problem Designing research method Need to create a market research brief Brief is a set of instructions/requirements that states the problem, information required and specifies budget/time frame etc. Generally includes executive summary, introduction, background, problem definition, time and gadget, reporting schedule, appendices Collecting data Research design is methodology created to guide project Hypothesis is tentative explanation that can be tested Types of research include: Exploratory research: loosely defined e. G. Focus groups Descriptive research: solves particular e. G. 90% of customers are 60 and older Causal research: assumes variables affect outcome e. G. Elation Types of data include: Secondary: originally gathered for another purpose Primary: specifically for current project Data mining: processing large data sets to find patterns Qualitative: numerical e. . Surveys Qualitative: rich, deep and detailed information about attitudes and emotions e. G. Interview/focus group This process may include ‘sampling’ Probability sampling: every member of the population has a known chance of being selected Non-probability sampling: no way of knowing the chance of a particular member Sampling error: measure of extent to which results from sample differ from population Analyzing and drawing conclusions Must be collecting according to methods in research design Can be conducted in-house or outsourced Data analysis involves filtering and organizing data

Quantitative analysis: converts numerical data into knowledge to be used for decision making Qualitative analysis: reductions and coding used to interpret non-numerical data Presenting results and making recommendations Written research report should include cover page/executive summary, contents, background, methodology/findings, statement of limitations, conclusions, recommendations and appendices Results in decisions that take the form of marketing plans/strategies Essential to understand market However, before undertaking you need to consider: Relevance Timing Availability of resources Need for new information Cost-benefit analysis Ethics Only valuable if it contributes to improved performance 3. Consumer behavior What is consumer behavior? Analysis of behavior of individuals/households who buy g/s for personal consumption Consumers make decisions along a continuum Habitual decision making D extended decision-making One we know our target market we want to work out: Why they behavior in a certain way? Whey that have preference for particular brands?

Influences on consumer behavior Situational Group individual al (independent of social circumstances) physical location Social interaction Time available arches motivation Mood Cultural Social personal Psychological Culture Us bucketful Social class Reference groups Family Roles and status Demographics e. G. Age, occupation, income Lifestyle Motivation Perception Beliefs and attitudes Group influences – Cultural factors Influences on behaviors that operate at the level of the whole society, or major groups within society Culture and sub culture Culture is a system of knowledge, beliefs, values and rituals by which a society/other large group defines itself Includes tangible and intangible e. G. Looting, food, laws, customs Examples of influences: Power distance i. E. Degree of acceptable inequality within culture Uncertainty avoidance Allis Masculinity (now known as nurturing) Long-term orientation Sub culture is groups of individuals who share common attitudes, value and behaviors that distinguish them for the broader culture in which they are immersed Individuals of similar rank within social hierarchy Defined by values and lifestyles Indicators include income, occupation and education Group influences – Social influences Influences on the individual to behave in a way that reflects group norms Any group to which an individual looks for guidance

Membership reference groups: groups the individual belongs to Aspiration reference groups: would like to belong Dissociation reference groups: does not wish to belong Opinion leader is reference group member who provides relevant and influential advice about a specific topic of interest to group members Family life cycle is series of characteristic stages most families pass through Family decision-making roles is differing responsibilities for specific types of decisions Pester power is influence of children on parents’ purchasing decisions Role and status Individuals play a number of roles with complex set of expectations Parents, hill, neighbor, employee, employer, customer, friend Influence of status lies in perceived status of individual Criteria such as formal role, age, social popularity, technical competence Individual influences – Personal Demographic, lifestyle and personality factors that influence consumer behavior Demographics Vital and social characteristics of populations e. G. Age, education Involves how an individual spends their time/interacts with others Personality unique set of psychological characteristics and behavioral tendencies that characterize an individual Combination of genetics and experiences

Individual influences – Psychological Internal factors, independent of situational or social circumstances, that shape thin king, aspirations, expectations and behaviors Drive to satisfy unfulfilled needs or achieve goals Mascots hierarchy of needs Suggests people seek to satisfy needs according to hierarchy that places low order ‘boogieing’ before higher order ‘psychogenic’ needs Physiological (hunger/thirst), safety, love/belongingness, esteem, self-actualization Psychological process that filters, organizes and attributes meaning Selective exposure, attention, distortion, retention Beliefs Descriptive of evaluative thoughts that an individual holds regarding their knowledge of a person, idea or product May be based on objective knowledge, opinions or faith Attitudes Individual’s relatively stable and consistent thoughts, feelings and behaviors towards an object/idea Learns Eng theories Behavioral learning theory: stresses role of experience and repetition Relevant in low involvement purchases Cognitive learning theory: learning takes place through rational problem solving, emphasizing acquisition and processing Of new information Relevant in high involvement purchasing decisions

Types of consumer decision making Habitual: low engagement, small, routine, low-risk products Limited: infrequently bought but familiar products Extended decision making: high engagement, high price, high-risk and/or infrequent and unfamiliar products Consumer decision making steps Need/want recon ignition Become aware of unsatisfied wants/needs Marketer stimulates/creates awareness of new need/want Information search Seeks information from sources about how to solve the problem Evaluation of opinions Develop evaluation criteria, rank alternatives, consider not purchasing/other uses of money Purchase Choose product and brands, decide to purchase or not to purchase, purchase Post-purchase evaluation Continue to evaluate product, deal with post-purchase cognitive dissonance, assess attitude towards product/bandoleer in relation to future purchases Cognitive dissonance: when purchaser has second thoughts or doubts 4. Business Buying Behavior: Business-to-business Product Parts and materials Equipment (capital and accessory used in production) Us applies and services Business markets Individuals or organizations that purchase products for resale, use in production of other products, or for use in their daily business operations

Compromise four major categories: Reseller markets Producer markets Government markets Institutional markets Intermediaries that buy products in order to sell/lease them to another party for profit Organizations and professionals who purchase products for use in the production of other products or in daily business operations Governments that buy/sell products to provide services for their citizens Not- for-profit organizations and these organizations compete for market share Wholesalers (sell to other intermediaries) Industrial distributors (sell to Organizational buyers) Primary industries (agriculture or mining) Secondary industries (manufacturing) Federal (Commonwealth) State (provincial) Charities Religious organizations Retailers Coal (municipal) Clubs N.

B Retailers sell to consumers Marketing to business customers High-value purchases High-volume purchases (common in reseller market and somewhat in producer as you can negotiate volume discounts) price competition and negotiation Number of (fewer) buyers and sellers Formal assessment of purchase of alternatives Ongoing relations Pips Characteristics of business demand Derived demand Businesses tend not to adjust consumption in relation to price changes They ass costs on to customer or look for substitute products Demand is more likely to be affected by a change in demand due to the end consumer Derived demand has a ‘snowball’ effect at all levels of the value chain Business customers make purchase decisions infrequently and based on expectations of long-run demand, resulting in demand that fluctuates more so than in consumer markets Joint demand Interdependent demand for multiple products that are used together in the product of another product E. G.

Inclusive Practice essay

Inclusive practice Inclusive practice is about providing the support that people want in order to live their lives as fully as possible. For example: When bed bathing an individual, by first gaining their consent, then talking to them: explaining what is happening/general conversation ‘asking them questions. This is inclusive practice. Also by encouraging them to do as much as they can, you are promoting their independence. I once cared for a patient who was physically disabled and needed assistance with eating.

One morning a colleague automatically started feeding the patient her breakfast. I informed my colleague that if you cut the food up and made sure everything was in reach, then the patient was capable of feeding herself. Offering a range of menu choices is another example Of inclusive practice : vegetarian option, soft diet, pureed, diabetic and high protein. In an early years practice there is a policy of inclusive practice to make all the children reach their full potential.

We use this practice to prevent or stop children feeling unwanted, not good enough, left in the dark, lost, small, nervous, worn down or have a negative self-image. This is important so a child can reach their full potential and be happy at the early years setting. In a case study researched which included a story of a boy named Sam; who is developmental behind approximately two years. I saw how being part of an inclusive practice helped him develop.

Sam was able to participate in group discussions with thanks to an aid which helped Sam sit up straight. Sam was able to run around with other children with aid from his walking frame, not only did this help Sam be more mobile so he could go and do things by himself but he could also interact better socially. This in turn helped his emotions develop. In the case study saw how not only Sam reacted but how all the other children reacted and I was amazed to see them all treat Sam as if he was just as equal as them.

However, they still adhered to his needs by passing Sam a toy if it was out of his reach. Limousine practice means that everyone is treated as an individual. In addition to everyone being treated as an individual it means that despite our differences whether that’s health, wealth, race or religion or any of the other differences that we are all treated as equal and unique. Inclusive practice is an important part of everyday life… Including everyone makes them feel part of a community and equally as important as every other person.