Language Globalization essay

The following paper introduces us to the terms of global languages and globalization; it also shows us how global languages spread and why they are needed. Key words: lingua franca, globalization, language Language and Globalization Since this paper is going to focus on the problem of language globalization I feel we should be properly introduced first to the term of lingua franca or otherwise known as a global language.

The term lingua franca (plural lingua France or lingua franca) is used to refer to any form of language that serves as a means of communication among different language speakers, for example, Swahili in East and Central Africa or English worldwide. The terms ‘common language’ and ‘auxiliary language’ are also used to refer to such a language. Mistier, 2001 : 503) The term itself originates from the French language, it originally referred to a vernacular Romance tongue spoken along the Mediterranean coast between Marseilles and Genoa, the language was later used by Crusaders -? who spoke different languages -? and was mixed with Arabic, Greek, Spanish and other element. In time the Crusader language became extinct but the name lingua franca survived as a general term of any memorable language. Cord, 2000) Lingua franca was defined in the 1953 UNESCO Conference on Vernacular Languages as a language which is used habitually by people whose, mother tongues are different in order to facilitate communication between them (SCIENCES 1953). This definition applies also to pidgins and Creoles, perhaps more to Creoles because of the requirement of habitualness. Furthermore, to understand why lingua franca are spreading so fast and wide we need to understand the term of globalization.

First of all one might ask what is a global language? A language achieves a global status hen it develops a special role that is recognized in other countries. This might seem like stating what we already know, but in fact it is not, a special role has many facets. Such a role will shine mostly in countries where the majority of people speak the language as a mother tongue -? in the case of English, this means the LISA, Canada, Britain, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, several Caribbean countries and some other territories.

However, none of the languages has ever been spoken by a mother tongue majority, with a few exceptions, so mother-tongue usage cannot give a engage a global status, not by itself. A language has to be taken up by other countries around the world in order to achieve such a Status. They have to decide to give the language a special place within their communities. (Crystal, 2003: 4) There are two main possibilities to achieve this. One way would be by making the language the official language of a country, to be used in the communication of the main domains such as government, the law, the media, and the educational system.

To get in these societies, it is crucial to master the official language as soon as possible. This type of language if often described as a ‘second language’, because it is seen as a complement to a person’s ‘first language’, or mother tongue. English is a perfect example of this; it has a kind of special status in over seventy countries, such as Ghana, Nigeria, India, Singapore and Vaunt. English reached further than any other language – though French, German, Spanish, Russian, and Arabic are not far behind, the have also developed a considerable official use. Crystal, 2003: 10) The other way would be if a language is made a priority in a country’s reign-language teaching, even though this language has no official status. English is now the language taught most widely in the world as a foreign language, in over 100 countries. English slowly overtakes many languages that were used to be taught, for example French. However there is a great variation in the reasons of choosing a particular language as a favored foreign language, like historical tradition, political, expediency, and the desire for cultural, commercial and technological contact.

Two other questions would be: Why do we need a global language? And, what is the future of English as a lobar language? To answer the first question, we have to know that translation has played a central role in human interaction for thousands of years. When different countries met, interprets were always present. But there are limits to what can be done this way. The problem of miscommunication that may occur is usually solved by finding a language that can act as a lingua franca, or ‘common language’.

Sometimes pidgins or simplified languages are used to communicate when communities begin to trade with each other. According to Crystal the idea that the whole world sight be in need of a lingua franca has emerged strongly in the twentieth century particularly since the 1 sass. Since then many international bodies were formed, like the World Bank, SCIENCES and EUNICE, the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency. This was the first time that so many countries have been represented in a single meeting place.

Multinational regional or political groupings have to come into being, such as the Commonwealth and the European Union, at a more restricted level. These contexts put a pressure on adopting a single new lingua franca in order o facilitate communication. The need for a global language is especially appreciated by the international academic and business communities, this field benefits the most from having a single lingua franca since both in lecture-rooms and board-rooms as well as in individual contacts are being made every day all over the globe.

And now to answer the other question it is important to note that every language suffers modifications as new linguistic fashions are introduced. These can be introduced by non-mother tongued speakers also. And thanks to the fact that second/foreign;language speakers eve a growing number means that they are gaining a national and international prestige, usages which were criticized as ‘foreign’ – like the three person rule, variations in count ability or verb use (he be running) -? can become part of the standard educated speech of a locality, and eventually they might appear in writing also.

As a result of present day scenario – an international gathering (political, educational, economic, artistic) during which visitors deliberately or unselfconsciously use words or phrases of their own country which are not traditional in the traditional standards of British or American English. Some time ago the reaction would have been to condemn the usage as ignorance. But today it is hard to say this since the visitors can be social equals in every way. Thanks to these circumstances one has to learn to live with the new usage as an increasing feature of increasing diversity in English.

It may take a generation or two, but it is inevitable. As it happened within fifty years between Britain and America: in 1 842, Charles Dickens was making observations about American linguistic usage – expressing amazement, for example, how the Americans use the verb fix in tones of light, not dismay. But whatever your attitude towards new usages – and there will always be people who prefer diversity – there is no escape from the fact that, these days regional national varieties of English have increasing usage with prestige on the international scene.

Economics essay

Satisfying unlimited wants with limited resources is the basic problem. Apart from free goods- air, sunshine etc Needs- food, clothing, shelter, medicine, education, travel. Wants- specific satisfiers of these needs. The ‘ collector mentality is assumed in humans. Egg- ostentatious goods- goods bought for symbolic value- luxury cares, expensive wrist watches etc. Firms also create wants in consumers. Consumer has to decide how to spend his limited income to Max his satisfaction, firms with limited capital to Max profits and gobo with limited tax revenue to Max society welfare or votes

A definition of economics- “it is a study of how individuals and societies chose to employ scarce resources to obtain Max benefit” or ‘economics’- make the most of what is available But limited/scarce resources (economic goods) can produce only limited sty of goods and satisfy a limited no of wants so large number of wants unsatisfied Resources are not just scarce but can be used for alternative uses. What goods to buy,entree- where to invest limited capital etc Opportunity cost/real cost – cost or value of the next best alternative foregone in making a choice .

Measured not in terms of money paid but amount of alternative commodity that must be given up. Gel keg grapes given up to buy 1 keg apples, value of revenue lost in country X to produce in country Y etc For this to arise two conditions must be met- 1 . Resources must be scarce (apart from free goods). 2. Resources must have alternative uses Consumers budget line/budget constraint/ consumption possibility line shows what he can buy with given income, which is at any point of the line ; A producer also incurs pop. Cost due to limited capital. Egg- transfer resources from A to B to produce more B. O/c is the reduced output of A, Holding excess inventory has o/c since it is capital tied up, re investing own profits o/c is profitable investments elsewhere etc. ; Production possibility curve/ frontier/ boundary/transformation curve (PC)- shows what is possible for an economy to produce if all resources are fully employed ; If PC is a straight line then equal pop. Cost. In an economy, the optimal output depends on the political economic situation and priorities In resource allocation. ; PC assumptions are 1. Resources of a country are fixed at any given point of time 2.

The state of technology of production is given 3. There is full utilization of resources 4. Assumed only 2 goods or (categories) are produced to be rep. In the graph ; Points on PC are Max. Output with full resources. Points outside cannot be reached with given resources it is a higher output combination and satisfaction. ( CZ of scarcity) Points inside curve is a lower output combination due to neutralized resources. ; Scarcity, choice, opportunity cost( but points inside curve do not involve any o/c) law of diminishing returns are concepts of PC law of diminishing returns/increasing pop. Cost – each additional unit of one unit can be obtained by giving up increasing units of the other. Due to increasing o/c since factors of production are not perfect substitutes. A factor optimal in one may not be so in another. ; Opportunity cost= no of units of y given up NO Of units Of X acquired ; Right Shifts in Eavesdropping new productive resources, improved technology improved labor productivity (deed,training, etc) PC shifts inwards Depletion of natural resources Damages to infrastructure Decline in labor productivity In a county, wealth is the stock of economic goods(not money).

Assignment Brief essay

The reporter wants to focus on two intonating business organizations with a presence in your local area, and has asked you for information on them, covering their purpose, ownership and the roles of different stakeholders. Task 1 You need to select two local organizations for your research. One should be a small organization in the private sector- (Marks & Spence’s). Your large organization should be in the public sector (Shell).

These two organizations must have a presence in your local area, although this could just be a branch (or shop or office) of your larger organization. Your are required to describe each business according to the following: Type: Does it belong to the public, private or not-for profit (voluntary) sector? Is it local, national, or international? What about its business activities: does it belong in the primary, secondary or tertiary sector? Purposes: What are its business purposes, in terms of products and services, and how does the business interact with its customers?

Ownership: Describe the type of the business’s ownership, and the implications of this for the way it does business. This provides evidence for p 1 Task 2 Every business has several stakeholders who influence its operations in different ways and to varying degrees. For both your businesses, identify and describe the different stakeholder groups and their influences. Consider customers, employees, suppliers, owners, trade unions, employer associations, local and national communities, and governments.

You may present the results of your research in the form of a table or chart if this appropriate. This provides evidence for UP Task 3 Individual stakeholders (or stakeholder groups) have different points of view bout the businesses in which they have an interest and the way they conduct their activities. They will Want to influence the aims and objectives Of the organization. You need to write a written report explaining the different points of view of the stakeholders in your two organizations.

This provides evidence for MI Task 4 Now concentrate on just one of your chosen businesses. Carry out an evaluation of the nature and degree of the influence exerted by different stakeholders in that organization. You will need to use evidence from different sources. You will have to make judgments about the relative importance of different stakeholders in terms of the nature and degree of the influence they exert. When you have completed your report, you must submit it to your teacher.

Brooklyn essay

How does Jobbing create a sense of home in the novel Brooklyn? Discuss. Cool Jobbing vividly explores the idea of home in Brooklyn, suggesting that most individuals never truly feel they belong in one place, and that some migrants can create a new home in foreign land. The novel depicts home as never being one concrete place but rather a constant battle between countries such as America and hometowns including Inconsistency and Italy.

Through characters such as Ellis, Tony and Jack, readers are shown differences in how individuals cope with finding their ‘homes’ and a sense of longing and through Mrs.. Echo and Miss Macadam how some are unable to detach themselves from former homes. Paragraph 1: Ellis Lacey, the novel’s protagonist, is used by Jobbing as a centre point in which he explores the idea Of displacement and the struggles some face when attempting to find and create a new sense of home.

In Brooklyn, Ellis is faced with two different settings, the small, middle class Irish town of Inconsistency and the multi-ethnic city of Brooklyn, America where people were said to be ‘happy and proud’. Whilst Jobbing portrays Inconsistency to be clannish with employers being disrespectful and characters treating each other shabbily, Ellis cannot imagine herself living elsewhere. Ellis feels she belongs in Ireland and that it is her true home as she grew up and found herself there.

Though more than content to remain at home with her mother and sister, the opportunity for Ellis to escape her small town of Inconsistency, therefore leaving behind everything and everyone she knows and loves, arises as she is presented with the opportune itty to migrate to Brooklyn. As Ellis prepares to leave home, she is both excited and reluctant. Further into the story, Ellis has the chance to renew herself, yet still experiences the tug of her Irish roots through letters sent to her from her family which leads her to believing she will never feel completely solid or at home in Brooklyn.

Jobbing uses the setting of an unlovely and makeshift room to reinforce the sense of absence of home Ellis experiences as her room is referred to as a ‘tomb’ and Ellis feels like a ‘ghost, reminding readers of the security and warmth Ellis has left behind in Ireland. “Nothing here was part of her”. When Ellis reminisces on Inconsistency, it is a “life she had lost and would never have again”. When receiving letters from her mother, Rose and Jack, Ellis begins to feel a sense of distance and detachment from the lives at home as the letters describe the familiar routines of Inconsistency thus the world Ellis has left behind.

She struggles with homesickness as she relives her past experiences in Ireland. Despite wanting to settle down and find happiness in Brooklyn, Ellis feels she does not fit in with the standards and way of life in Brooklyn. Once successfully passing her exams and falling in love with Tony, Ellis briefly lives that Brooklyn is worth investing time and effort into and begins to connect with her surroundings and people more, leading her to finding a temporary sense of belonging, although the thought of her family back in Ireland remains ingrained in her head and the safety and familiarity she felt there.

In part three, Ellis reflects upon her situation in Brooklyn as she establishes a solid reputation at her work and undertakes a bookkeeping class whilst maintaining a relationship with a man she dearly adores. However, Jobbing reminds readers her feelings towards Ireland have not come less complicated and she is still deeply attached to her former home. Inconsistency will forever represent comfort, safekeeping and familiarity to Ellis, Brooklyn representing opportunity and hope.

Once returning to Ireland after her sisters death, Ellis feels alienated from the land she once was so connected to due to her growth of independence in Brooklyn. Ellis however still feels a deeper association to her former home than her current one in Brooklyn and ultimately had Ellis not married Tony before returning, Jobbing leads readers to believe she would have remained in Ireland. Through this, Jobbing shows readers that whilst some are able to let go of their past homes and create new ones elsewhere, some cannot shake the feelings of displacement experienced and feel they belong in their initial homes.

Paragraph 2: Jobbing suggests that whilst initially longing for their birth country, individuals can create a new home elsewhere and thus develop a sense of belonging in foreign land. This is shown through the Foreleg family, consisting of Tony, his brothers and Mr.. And Mrs.. Foreleg, who migrated from Italy to America in the hope for a successful and better life. Despite living in lower class conditions, he family appears to adjust well to the ‘American Life’ as they all attain well- paying and enjoyable jobs.

To them, Brooklyn is home as they immerse themselves in the opportunities they are presented with and the sense of belonging that appeals to them very quickly. Tony and his brothers engage themselves in ‘The Dodgers’, a typical American passion therefore engrossing themselves in the American culture. As well as the Foreleg’s, Jack Lacey is a character who migrates to Birmingham for better employment opportunities and establishes a home in which he feels comfortable and happy in.

Whilst initially desperate to return home, Jack overcomes his feelings of homesickness and uneasiness, opening himself up to the prospects presented to him. In doing so, Jack creates a new home for himself. Through these characters, Jobbing shows home is not necessarily where one is born, but rather where the individual believes they belong and where they are able to create a successful future. Paragraph 3: Some show they will remain to feel at home in their birth country and attempt to recreate their view of ‘home’ elsewhere, as Jobbing shows through the characters of Mrs.. Echo and Miss Macadam.

Advanced Teamwork essay

I would also try to create and implement a strategy to create a culture of diversity that would permeate very department and function Of the organization. I would document the skills, knowledge and experience of each employee so I could use it to determinate team objectives and provide service to customers on a global basis; I would definitely encourage individual differences, so the employees would be inspired to perform to their highest ability. 2. From my point of view, Australia is a very organized and well-succeed country that, due to it’s low demography, allows and encourages foreign people to come live here.

Some diversity issues that could be relevant: some ultras are used to raise their voices as a sign of an exciting conversation among friends, while the Australian would be scared because they’d consider raised voices to be a sign that a fight has begun. Also about completing tasks, Asian and Hispanic cultures tend to develop relationship first and then emphasize the task completion while the European and Australian tend to focus immediately on the task at hand, and let relationship develop as they work on it.

Since Australia has became a multicultural country, the mentioned themes may be a problem while different cultures are working together. I also think that the prejudice and stereotyping may be very recurrent, specially due to nationalities; maybe somebody worked with a Brazilian before and he was terrible, so the employer thinks that all the Brazilian guys are bad. Also think that, due to “life condition” back to other countries, some people arrived here and would work at any time and for any wage, so it would take away jobs from Australian citizen, that’s why the government created time limits for commercial establishments, for example. . A The Racial Discrimination Act makes it unlawful to discriminate in employment on the grounds of race, color or national o ethnic origin and the Sex Discrimination Act makes it unlawful to discriminate in employment on the grounds of a person’s sex, marital status, pregnancy or potential pregnancy or to sexually harass another person. B. Ethical principles, when followed, promotes values in which the company believes, such as trust, good behavior, fairness, kindness, among others.

Each company has the right to develop the standards that are meaningful for their organization. C. Through the Codes of practice, every employee is aware of the company’s codes, cause they can read the written guidelines issued by the official body and comply with its ethical standards. D. The Privacy Act 1 988 is an Australian law which regulates the handling of personal information about individuals. This includes the collection, use, storage and disclosure of personal information, and access to and correction of that information.

E. Under the Work Health and Safety Act 2011 , all employers and employees must maintain a secure, healthy and safe working environment. An employer must take practical precautions to prevent harassment. F. The Disability Discrimination Act makes it unlawful for an employer to discriminate against a person on the grounds of disability (including a disease). Part B -? Research Project 1. A Indians, English (1-K), Chinese, South Africans and Philippines. B. Christian, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism. . A The diversity of the people in the workforce is one of its greatest strengths. Managing diversity successfully means creating an environment that values and utilities the contributions of people with different backgrounds, experiences and perspectives. A diverse workforce that feels enforceable communicating varying points of view provides a larger pool of ideas and experiences. The organization can draw from that pool to meet business strategy needs and the needs of customers more effectively.

B. People with different background experiences stimulate new ideas on another and many immigrants are available for doing labor and manual jobs that the Australian would not like to make, so there are jobs and people to work, which help the economy to keep growing. C. Australia receives “thoughts” from people from all over the world, generated by different experiences and perspectives, so when you put it all together you are more likely to have great ideas. D.

Since Australia is a multicultural country, with people from all over the world, the social justice aims to keep the balance between groups of people in the society, so everyone gets a peaceful coexistence within and among nations. Part C – Case Study 1 . “Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds” (CAL D) employees from Australia Post could feel disadvantaged because the company’s “Shared Services Division” (SD) was created in the past and the questions had been answered locally, so they probably wouldn’t be able to understand it or wouldn’t feel comfortable speaking about sensitive issues as pay in a different language of theirs. . They used their own CALL employees to provide “Lagrange Assist” to SD, employing a comprehensive communication strategy. 3. From e-mails to a flyer in staff paisleys, the SD Call Centre was able to provide an enhanced service to Australia’s 7000 strong CALL workforce, able to respond to calls in 20 different languages. It’s an organizational innovation. 4.

Staff feel more comfortable talking in their own immunity Image; employees feel recognized and appreciated by the process; the company saved Money; benchmarks were set in the organization about multilingual communication; it increased staff morale; appreciation and utilization of the strengths already presenter in the workforce. 5. Internally, the people from many different countries and their ideas that turned into the “Language Assist”. Externally, the fact that Australia is a country that allows and encourages foreign people to come live here and applies the EYE: Equal Employment Opportunity.

Baskin Robbins Marketing Report essay

This was followed by the opening of a Burtons store. Years later in 1 953, when both the founders Burton Basking and Irvine Robbins joined the identities of both their stores to form the Basking Robbins name which flowed through the franchise stores (Basking Robbins, 2015). Basking Robbins came to AJAX in the year 1979 through the partnership with Gaillardia Ice Cream Co. The first store in AJAX was set up in Sat. Currently, Basking Robbins has a leading market share of 21% in I-JAKE with 3 Million scoops sold every year and 40,000 scoops being sold every day.

Basking Robbins has gained a high podium and maintained it in its 35th year in AJAX. Middle East as a whole is a big market for Basking Robbins and has 650 stores in the region (Gaillardia Brothers Group, 2013). Basking Robbins provide 4 diverse range of products for AJAX which covers many aspects of the dessert food criteria. The first range of products is its ice cream which is available in 30 different flavors which includes basic flavors like vanilla & chocolate to special flavors like chocolate chip cookie dough, mint chocolate chip and Tiramisu.

The indulge range of products feature ice cream scoops with garnish and signature sundaes. The celebrate engage of products feature custom cakes and chef special cakes and finally the refresh range of products provide four varieties of thick shakes (Basking Robbins, 2015). Market Description LEASE has been developing exponentially and currently it has one of the most advanced dairy sectors in the Middle East with many processing plants for ice creams and other locally owned processing and d trading companies which are in the ice cream sector.

The companies which are locally established include International Foodstuffs (OFFICIO) which produces Mother Dairy Ice Cream, Pure Ice Creams Company and the United Kappa Dairies (KANJI International). The distribution and sales of Ice Cream in AJAX happens through Ice Cream parlors and major grocery stores like Careful, Spinney, etc. The global ice cream companies that have their franchise operations going on in AAU include Basking Robbins, Dairy’ Queen, Hagen-Dads, and Cold Stone Creamery (International markets Bureau, 2012).

Customers are observed to indulge in impulse purchases of Ice Cream which accounted for 52% of total ice cream purchases and the rest was divided among dessert stores, parlors and grocery stores. The second leading source of sales was sake-home ice creams which had a contribution of 18% in the total market share. Looking at the impulse based ice cream purchases, it can be safely said that increasing the number of ice cream parlors in mall areas, recreational parks and schools would be beneficial for Basking Robbins. The 40% market sales of the ice cream market relies on the people of age group of 18-34 years.

The segment of teenagers and pre-teens account for 35% of the market and the 25% market sector is of the people aged 35 and above which shows a spike in the middle aged group regarding ice cream (International markets Bureau, 2012). The products provided by Basking Robbins from all ranges are given to people of all ages. A high amount Of ice cream is consumed by families and teenagers and the contribution of working individuals is minimal. There is also a growing attraction to frozen yoghurt which is diverting some customers from traditional ice cream products (SISAL Middle East, 2015).

Market Opportune ties The existing market segments can be observed for innovating and creating more marketing opportunities. The consumer segmentation shows that the consumers of Basking Robbins belong to the age-group 18-34. Trying to know he customer’s demands would let us gain an insight regarding possible marketing opportunities. Analysis of market sample provides an opportunity to the company for introducing a low priced range of ice creams which would make Basking Robbins accessible and would expand the market segments of Basking Robbins. There is also a scope for a new product in Basking Robbins.

After secondary research, it has been derived that the reason why many people in the higher age group could not eat ice cream due to diabetes and would another factor is that girls rarely eat ice cream due to sugar content which has an impact On their weight. This is a concrete reason for introducing sugar free ice creams in the AJAX market. Also due to the fact that majority of the population is urban in nature and would adhere to healthier options if available. Application of Marketing Mix The marketing mix of Basking Robbins can be created by analyzing the ups of Marketing which are Product, Price, Place and Promotion.

Analyzing these aspects will lead to a well-defined marketing mix. Product Basking Robbins provides products like Ice Creams which are available in single scoops, take-home boxes and Sundaes. Basking Robbins also provides custom cakes and chef specialty cakes and thick shakes. There is a vast range of flavors available in every Basking Robbins store. The products provided by Basking Robbins are aesthetically pleasing and has a wide range of utility regarding eating and bulk orders. The downside regarding the products is that it is not durable for a long time.

There is a possibility of innovating within flavors and the content of the ice cream to expand the market segment and include more population into the customer base of Basking Robbins market. Price The prices of Basking Robbins are higher than other ice creams so the company has applied both psychological pricing and promotional pricing techniques. Regarding psychological pricing, the prices are not rounded up and kept close to the next ringing. The price range between kids, value and double scoop are close so it doesn’t feel like an option is much pricier which makes it reasonable.

There are a lot Of people who still do not find Basking Robbins Ice Cream affordable on a regular basis. The company can concentrate on this factor and develop a product which is affordable to a wider audience. Place AAU has Basking Robbins stores in 165 locations in [JAKE which makes Basking Robbins Ice cream convenient to approach and accessible. All of these stores are placed possibly near malls and major public areas to boost sales. All of these stores are open every day of the year (Duncan, 2014). Promotion Around Ramadan, Basking Robbins introduced Mini-Treats for people who are attending Fifths during the festival.

Basking Robbins has planned a major promotion event for the year 2020. Basking Robbins is going to offer free ice cream to people who visit the Basking Robbins store between 1 and 3 PM Chalked Times, 2013). Analysis of Market Research Before the analysis it is critical to not that the sample size is 1 00 and the target Of the survey are the people who were having ice Cream at an outlet Of an Ice Cream parlor of any brand. The age group of the sample has been denoted through the chart which depicts that the highest amount of people were in the age group 18-35 years.

The lowest number of people belonged to the age group of 50 and above and this can be explained by reasoning that old people have health problems like diabetes and dental problems and would avoid eating Ice Cream. After analyzing the results of the survey it was also found that more than forty people agreed and strongly agreed on the brand conscious factor while 15 were neutral and commented that factors like taste and price matters. The frequency of people eating Ice Cream denotes that people of AAU often eat ice cream and at least once in a fortnight if taken an average of the data.

Most people tend to purchase at publicly accessible areas where they can have easy access to ice cream in the heat. These factors amount to the consensus that majority of the ice cream purchases are impulse buys and the researches from the convenience stores are the ones amounting to the purchase of take-home packs. When asked about the favorite flavor of Ice Cream, majority of the people voted for flavors like chocolate fudge, strawberry sorbet, and caramel chocolate while there were a few people who preferred their own different favorites.

This made it impossible to track a huge trend of other than the classic flavors. This makes it clear that the statement “Every flavor may not be liked by everyone, but every flavor will be some one’s favorite”, a true statement. Regarding the question of how often people had Basking Robbins Ice Cream, the number of people who eat it every day reduced to zero but the rest of the data showed uniformity regarding the general ice cream eating population. The satisfaction level of the people who had tried Basking Robbins was very high and for some, it was a favorite Ice Cream.

The people with a low level of satisfaction has complaints regarding prices of the ice cream. Many people suggested that there was a scope of improvement regarding the inclusion of certain flavors and items other than ice cream. People around certain ranches reported that there was a scope of improvement in the service factor. Many people also agreed to the notion that there should be more flavors and some flavors can be eliminated but as the data regarding those flavors was very volatile a strong opinion regarding this factor could not be determined.

Embracing Diversity essay

Define discrimination and support your answer with an example from the movie. Discrimination can be defined as treating someone unjustly or unfavorable particularly because of age, gender, race, or sexuality. We can see various examples of racial discrimination in the movie Remember the Titans from both races. We can see this particularly towards the start of the movie when Julius (dark) and Garry (white) are put into a room together, Julius puts up a poster but Garry makes him take it down which then leads to a fight.

The fact that Garry starts a fight with Julius shows the audience that he feels that he is deter than Julius because Of the skin difference, and that is an act Of discrimination. Define vilification and support your answer with an example from the movie. We can define vilification as writing or speaking abusively or derivatively. A clear example of this in the movie would be how when the new coach, coach Boone, is referred to as Coach Con- a derogative term for someone of dark skin color.

Only the lighter skinned children refer to him as this with staff members of the school wishing they could also do the same. Another example would be the continual use of the word ‘them’ or ‘your people’ when referring to either color (mainly the darker colored people). Define prejudice and support your answer with an example from the movie. Prejudice is term that refers to a preconception people may have about something or someone despite not having any experiences regarding the person or thing.

We can see this with Sherry Yeast (the coach’s daughter) and how she reacts to the new coach (Coach Boone). When the coach first arrives she assumes that he isn’t good at what he does and that he’s just trying to top her father from getting into the hall of fame- she only assumes this because he’s black and she refuses to make time for him or his family. This shows prejudice because she hasn’t even seen him coach or let him even speak for the matter and yet still assumes he’s no good.

Define harassment and support your answer with an example from the movie. Harassment simply refers to continuous aggressiveness, intimidation and or pressure from one person to another. We can see this in the movie in regards to Ray Buds. Ray refuses to accept the new team members often seen refusing hem to sit with him and talking to them like they’re not the same species, he continuously talks down to them and puts them down and those who are friends with them.

He manages to harass the black team members so much that he eventually gets kicked off the team. Explain how social factors influenced the development and occurrences of the discrimination in the movie, give examples. Ignorance and stereotypes seem to be the biggest social factor that influenced the changes. Stereotypes can be seen just about throughout the entire movie particularly at the beginning and when the team arrives back to school. The stereotypes seen are that black people and white can’t get along and that black people will take over.

An example of these stereotypes are when Carry’s girlfriend says “look at them, they hate us…. They’ll always hate us”, this shows that she had prejudged them and assumed that they we’re not like herself, along with the idea that blacks and whites haven’t got along in the past so why would they start now. Another example is when Coach Yeast (white) “it only takes one. Then we’re all going to be overrun by them”. This example is not only shows that he assumes that al black people are trying to take over, but that all black people are good at sport.

The fact that all these various stereotypes are shown to be believed by the characters shows that they’re ignorant, something the team soon realizes and sets out to change. Identify three strategies used by the coach/team members to overcome the discrimination. Evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness Of each Of these strategies. Coach Boone forces the team to bunk together and sit on the bus together, one black and one white, in order to try get them to communicate and get over their petty behavior.

He forces them to learn something about ever member on their team and share it or be punished. Another tactic he uses is to take them on a jog to the graves of a war between the blacks and whites in order to show them that thousands of people lost their lives for the same silly fight the team is having. The other thing the coach does to try and combat the racism is to treat each player the same. He admits to being hard on the players when during training and on the field but he’s hard on everyone showing the team that to him, they’re all equal.

These strategies all seem appropriate to me and were all obviously effective because the team was able to put aside their differences and come together to make something great. They were all somewhat threatening but sometimes the intimidating need to be intimidated and so each one proved their effectiveness and each one allowed the team to grow closer, win or lose. Describe the importance of characters in the film that resisted the social pressure to discriminate. Evaluate the conflicts they faced and how they overcame them. How did these characters influence others to resist social erasure to discriminate?

Gerry Bertie was the main driving force against discrimination; he refused his girlfriend and fought with his own mother in order to stand up for his friends. This characters decision had more importance than most because he played the quarterback, the most sought after position often linked with popularity and ignorance, however Gerry was different. He (fairly fast) decided that he wasn’t any different to the darker people on his team and always stood up for them against friends, family even opposing teams, he refused to let the poor treatment continue.

The redecorate is often ends up taking a leadership role and the rest of the team (generally) follows, this means that when the team saw Gerry stick up for them, they felt compelled to stick up for them as well, it meant that they were more open minded because of his decisions and how he acted around the darker members of the team. In your opinion, describe how a positive sense of self can influence social behavior. Use characters and examples from the movie to support your opinion. A better sense of self means that you feel more confident and empowered to work harder.

Working harder means that o have a better chance of changing society or at least how your community sees things, this also means that you allow yourself to grow and improve yourself as a person. Gerry had a very strong sense of self which allowed him to see that the way darker members of his team were being treated wasn’t fair along with that the way he reacted to ‘Sunshine kiss was somewhat unjust. This allows him to grow as a person and make new friends whilst changing the way that his family and previous friends think and see different people, ultimately improving a part of society by treating everyone equally.

Foundation of Mythol essay

How is the myth used popularly? There are many types of myths, and from nearly every place in the world. What does the statement “It’s a myth” mean in contrast to, how the word myth used in the academic context? After considering the definition in your textbooks and course materials, write a definition in your own words. A. A myth is usually, a locally or globally popularized story or belief. Which mostly isn’t true. It is mostly used in sentenced describing a legend or a story tit questionable authenticity.

I went to Dictionary. Com, which defines myth as a traditional or legendary story the word, myth is used to address what is real and what is not real in academic context. A myth is a fairy tale that is told to children to create a dramatic and more exciting effect. For example: Jack Frost is winter, the Easter Bunny is for Easter, and Tooth Fairy is for tooth underneath the pillow will give you money. These stories became as part of many people everyday lives. Q. What are the most common mythological themes across different culture? Why do myths from culture around. The world address, such similar or universal themes?

Think about how myths explain the unknown and the tribulations of mankind. A. Myths for the most mythological themes across the world or universe have different culture, and have different beliefs. The way myths are presented in movies is the way the media relates with one another on belief and past history. Through our ancestors are connected to the many generation that still believe in myths in our culture, and is embedded in our soul. For examples: Greek myth is cupid falling in love with beautiful earth girl. Psych, and his mother Aphrodite and her ventures to destroy psych.

Other stories of King Arthur and his legendary sword, Exclaimer, and the myths of the Holy Grail. Q. What is the relationship between Belief, Knowledge, Mythology, and Religion? Where does mythology and religion intersect? Where does they diverge from? Think about the function of myth and religion in helping human beings cope with change, suffering, loss, and death. A. Belief is the statement that something is true without having necessary proof, evidence, or fact to back it up. Knowledge is consist of acquired information, such as facts, truth stories, concept, etc…

Myth is a fictional story, usually, with a hero or event. A traditional, typically ancient story dealing with supernatural being, ancestors, or heroes that serves as a fundamental types in the world view of people explaining aspects of the natural order. Myths, the Greek word meaning originally means “history’. The mythology of a culture originated as a mean recording what that culture thought to be real actual facts about the origin and the existence of the cosmos around them. Religion, we can consider to be active and valid beliefs in a given culture.

Now a days, Christianity and Islam, to name just two, are called religions because they are regarded as truths by entire cultures. Q. Do you think mythology is still relevant in contemporary culture? How do people resort to modern myths to deal with unknown and hardships in life? A. According to Popular Culture Association (PICA) / American Culture Association (AC), ‘the numerous appearance of mythological figures and patterns in all areas of popular culture speaks to the notion that mythologies, AR from being relics of the past, continue to have significance in the contemporary world” (Para 1).

In today society, the concept of mythology and myths are found in media, movies, cartoon, novels, (both fictional and non fictional), arts (both performing and visual), games, (computer, video games console, and board), and the list continue on Popular Culture Association (PICA) / American Culture Association (AC), 2012). Advertising and the arts use mythology to represent human experiences and desire. As parent sometimes use methods of myths as punishment examples or for rewarding DOD behavior in children.

Market Failure essay final essay

Market failure and how government can attempt to correct it Market failure is a situation in which the free market fails to allocate resources effectively, causing a situation where the quantity demanded by the consumer is unequal to the quantity supplied by the supplier. Leotard (1987) argues in the textbook Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice that “the best way to understand market failure is to first understand market success” (Hanley, et al. 2007, p. 44) My definition of market success would be an open market whereby the quantity supplied meets the quantity manned, with no overcompensation of goods that have a long-term cost to society and provision in place for basic essentials to be supplied to society In the correct proportion. There are many reasons why market failure can occur, and it is not a rare occurrence.

This appears to be backed up in statements by Nelson (1987) and Dolman (1 979), quoted in the textbook Economic Efficiency in Law and Economics: “A fundamental problem with the concept of market failure, as economists occasionally recognizes, is that it describes a situation that exists everywhere” (Zero, 2002, p. 168). I will look at some of he reasons why market failure occurs, with examples, and look at forms of government intervention to try’ and correct it. Will then look at some instances of reported market failure within the London property market and how government has intervened, as well as assessing the success of the intervention.

Public goods Public goods, as outlined by McConnell and Bruce (1999, up. 87,88), are indivisible to individual buyers and it would be impossible to exclude individuals from benefiting once these goods/services come into existence. An example of such public goods would be a lighthouse on a treacherous coast. It would be economically justified, as the benefit of fewer shipwrecks would far exceed its cost. The benefits to each individual, however, would not be great enough to justify them paying an individual fee.

Furthermore, once in operation the light generated would be a guide to all ships and there would be no way to exclude any non-purchasers. The problem of people benefiting without contributing to cost is known as ‘the free-rider problem’. For these reasons private enterprises have no economic incentive to supply such goods/services as they cannot be effectively priced and sold to create an economic profit. Market failure therefore occurs as there is a service which could yield substantial benefits, yet the market allocates no resources to it.

Some other examples of public goods would be street lighting and national defense (army). The way that government intervenes to correct the market failure in the instance Of public goods is for the State to provide such services and aim to recoup the cost in the form of taxes. Merit goods As Heathery and Otter outlined (201 1, p. 42), a merit good is something that arguably all people should have access to, regardless of ability to pay. If left to the free market, people may be priced out of the market and denied access to such essentials as education and healthcare.

It is therefore often expected that the state should intervene and provide these things so that everybody has access to them. Government can be keen to intervene as the consumption of merit goods will often lead to positive externalities. (See below for details on externalities. ) I am of the opinion that consumers generally take a purely selfish view and therefore do not take into account the greater benefits of merit goods, which therefore leads to underestimation. In some ways see merit goods to be quite similar to public goods, and government intervention is often the same, I. The state provides these services. In some instances, however, merit goods can be supplied by private businesses, such as private hospitals and private schools. If left solely to the private sector, however, a large sector of the population would be unable to consume owing to financial constraints. Private enterprises therefore Often run hand in hand with the state providing merit goods such as education and healthcare. Government funding is also often made available to encourage nonusers to pay for merit goods at a subsided price via the private sector, I. E prescriptions and NASH dentists.

The other difference, as described very well in the textbook Organizations and The Business Environment (Campbell & Craig, 2005) is that merit goods tend to only be taken advantage of as and when needed, I. E the health service we only use when ill, or education which is used when we are young or when we wish to further our development later in life. Public goods such as street lighting are used by everybody on a regular basis, whether deliberately or otherwise. Demerit goods Demerit goods are generally considered harmful in some way and have external costs which are not generally taken into account when purchased.

The market failure in this instance would therefore be overproduction/ consumption at a cost to society. Common examples of demerit goods would be cigarettes and alcohol which, aside from the cost to society I. E. Antisocial behavior, passive smoking etc. , also have a cost to the consumer’s own health. Government intervenes in such cases to prevent overproduction/ consumption by putting laws in place to help reduce consumption I. . Restrictions on times when retail outlets can sell alcohol and age limits.

It also often levies additional tax on demerit items which a) helps contribute towards some of the social cost and b) may slightly deter consumption owing to the price. Externalities Market prices reflect the individual cost to the business and the benefit gained from the product (Heathery & Otter, 2011, p. 42). On many occasions, however, the economic activity may have a social benefit or benefit to a third party such as education or healthcare, as described earlier. Clearly a healthy ND well-educated population will produce a far more productive workforce and demand less spending by the state in terms of welfare and healthcare.

Market failure occurs as the external benefits are undervalued by the market and the goods end up underclassmen or underreported. Believe that the most practical way for government to intervene in this instance is to provide either an incentive or funding to assist in production to correct the market failure. This sentiment appears to be corroborated in the following statement: “While typically the remedy for market failure due to public goods is for the public sector to provide the good, the remedy for externalities is often to provide incentives to the private sector to produce the correct amount” (Wilding & Bawdy, 1 984, p. 1 A prime example of an incentive being provided would be the subsidizing of university fees or government funding available to businesses to invest in training. In some cases, particularly with merit goods, the state intervenes and actually provides the good. In contrast to a positive externalities, a negative externalities would be a social cost or cost incurred by a third party I. E. Elution caused by a factory or the cost to the state in healthcare from illnesses caused by cigarettes and alcohol.

Demerit goods would generally have negative externalities; however, it is important to note that not all goods with negative externalities are demerit. A negative externalities could be the social cost of pollution from a factory, for instance. Market failure in the case of negative externalities would generally be overcompensation due to consumers failing to take into account the external costs to third parties. The most common form of government intervention in hose cases is taxation, to ensure that consumers are contributing to the social cost, I. Tax on cigarettes and alcohol or congestion charge. Monopolies Monopolies can occur when a single business or a small group of businesses controls a large market share. Market failure is quite likely due to these businesses having the ability to drive up market prices, potentially leaving the product priced higher than it would be in a fair competitive market and leaving the consumer worse off. Equally a business with a large market share also has the ability to demand lower prices from the supplier at a cost to the applier.

In addition to this, when a business has an overly large market share the lack of competition can lead to a drop in funds and effort invested into research and improved management, leading to a loss of product efficiency. A 201 1 news report identifies a case where five businesses account for 90% Of the cement market, 75% of aggregates and 68% of ready-mix concrete. There were concerns that a lack of competition had driven up building costs, resulting in the government overpaying for schools, hospitals and roads (Riley, 2012).

Government intervention to prevent monopolies causing market allure is very common, usually in the form of regulation. There are various regulatory bodies that will look closely at possible cases of market monopoly such as the Competition Commission, which investigates mergers and also investigates markets with competition concerns such as supermarkets, and the Office of Fair Trading, which reports on various anti-competitive practices. Market failure and the London housing market A report by GAL Economics into market failure in the London housing market (2003) outlines some key areas of market failure.

One of the biggest problems s a serious unresponsiveness of supply to growth in demand. Demand for houses then drives up prices, leaving an even bigger shortage of options for those on a lower income. Furthermore the report suggests that overall supply of housing in London has been in decline since the 1 sass, with no corresponding decrease in demand. For decades the council house building programmer compensated for this; the fall in levels of construction Of social housing more recently has therefore hit the affordable end of the market hardest.

Government intervention in the housing market by building and offering social housing is to guarantee a certain standard of home for every family ATA price within their means. My own interpretation of this is that it quite correctly sees affordable housing as a merit good. It is certainly debatable, however, how successful it has been in achieving this objective. Another form of government intervention in the housing market is planning regulations; these are put in place by the state to respond to changes in demand, monitor density controls and maintain planning and design standards.

Evans (1 987, quoted in GAL Economics, 2003) argued, however, hat the planning system, through the regulation of supply of usable land, reduces the extent to which house builders can respond to changes in demand and actually pushes up prices in the long run. He provides evidence showing land and house price inflation outstripping increases in household incomes and the retail price index throughout the asses and ass. During these same decades, house builders were spending a large amount of money pursuing planning permissions and maintaining land banks.

These sums were then passed on to consumers via higher land and house prices. If Vans’s hero is to be believed, this could be described as a clear case of ‘government failure’, which is the term used to describe a situation when government intervention in the economy to correct market failure actually exacerbates the problem. The GAL report, however, cites Gringo’s (1986) as arguing that the planning system cannot push up prices in either land or the housing market. He stated that the supply of new-build housing is only a small proportion of the housing market which is dominated by second-hand homes.

Us m Mary Market failure appears frequently and will continue to do so. There are many contrasting views on the effects of market failure and the best way to remedy them. It is my opinion that for every argument against a solution there would be also be many ideas and theories supporting the same idea, as shown in the opinions on planning regulations. I wonder whether state provision of public goods is effectively forcing a monopoly, leading to questions about the efficiency of organizations such as the NASH. Others would have many theories about why this was not the case.

In my opinion, incentives private genuineness to provide merit goods is a model that works very well but there will be people who I am sure would come up with valid reasons why that system has flaws. Market failure will always exist, and a government solution that pleases everybody is virtually impossible.

Assignment Quantitative Data Analysis essay

Data analysis is an attempt by the researcher to summarize collected data either quantitative or qualitative. Generally, quantitative analysis is simply a way of measuring things but more specifically it can be considered as a systematic approach to investigations. In this approach numerical data is collected or the researcher transforms collected or observed data into numerical data. It is ideal for finding out when and where, who and what and any relationships and patterns between variables. This is research which involves measuring or counting attributes (I. Quantities). It can be defined as: ‘The numerical representation and manipulation of observations for the purpose Of describing and explaining the phenomena that those observations reflect is called quantitative analysis” Quantitative analysis gives base to quantitative geography and considered as one of important parts of geographical research. As, subject matter of quantitative geography is comprehended by the following key issues: Collection of empirical data Analysis of numerical spatial data Development of spatial methods for measurements, theories and hypothesis

Construction and testing of mathematical models of spatial theory Concisely, all above mentioned activities develop understanding of spatial processes. Quantitative geography is not bound by deep-routed philosophical stance as its most obvious, efficient and reliable mean of obtaining knowledge. Thus, it might be labeled all quantitative researchers as positivist or naturalist (Graham, 1997). Thus, its purpose is not to produce flawless data but rather is to maximize knowledge with minimum of error.

Therefore, verification of quantitative research can be done by determining its significance in discipline. Sources of quantitative data: We can gather quantitative data in a variety of ways and from a number of different sources. Many of these are similar to sources of qualitative data, for example: a) Questionnaires: these are series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. B) Interviews: a conversation between two or more people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee. ) Observation – a group or single participants are manipulated by the researcher, for example, asked to reform a specific task or action. Observations are then made of their user behavior, user processes, workflow etc, either in a controlled situation (e. G. Lab based) or in a real-world situation (e. G. The workplace). D) Transaction logs – recordings or logs of system or website activity. E) Documentary research – analysis Of documents belonging to an organization.

Level of measurements Quantitative data is associated with any of following four levels of measurement: Nominal: data has no logical and classified into separate groups which are not interlinked. For Example, Male or Female as mentioned low: There is no order associated with male nor female Each category is assigned an arbitrary value (male O, female -” 1) Ordinal: data has a logical order, but the differences between values are not constant Example: T-shirt size (small-scale, large scale industries) Example: economic activities (from Primary to quandary) Interval: data is continuous and has a logical order.

It has standardized differences between values, but no natural zero Example: Fahrenheit degrees Ratio (scale): data is continuous, ordered, has standardized differences between values, and a natural zero Example: height, weight, age, length Quantitative data analysis procedure: Data tabulation (frequency distributions & percent distributions) Descriptive data Data disaggregating Moderate and advanced analytical methods Data tabulation: The first thing researcher should do with his data is to tabulate results for the different variables in data set.

This process will give a comprehensive picture of what data looks like and assist in identifying patterns. The best ways to do this are by constructing frequency and percent distributions. Frequency distribution is an organized tabulation of the number of individuals located in each category. It is also known as invariant analysis in which a single variable is analyzed for purposes of description.

Example: Gender where the number of men in a sample/population and the number of women in a sample/population are analyzed. Percent distribution displays the proportion of participants who are represented within each category (see below). From the table, you can see that 75% of students (n = 20) surveyed who participated in the summer program reported being satisfied with the experience Data Descriptive: A descriptive refers to calculations that are used to “describe” the data set.

The most common descriptive used are: Mean – the numerical average of scores for a particular variable Standard deviation- square root of variance Minimum and maximum values – the highest and lowest value for a particular variable Median – the numerical middle point or score that cuts the distribution in half for a particular variable Mode -” the most common number score or value for a particular variable Fig. :showing the actual heights (at the shoulders) are: mm, mm, mm, mm and mm with its mean value Fig. : showing standard deviation and variance

However, depending on the level of measurement, you may not be able to run descriptive for all variables in dataset. Mean can only be calculated from interval and ratio data Minimum and maximum values can be calculated for all levels of measurement Median can only be calculated from ordinal, interval, and ratio data Mode can be calculated for all levels of measurement Data disaggregating: After tabulating the data, you can continue to explore the data by disaggregating it across different variables and us observatories of variables.

Crossbars allow you to disaggregate the data across multiple categories. You can also disaggregate the data by subcategories within a variable. This allows you to take a deeper look at the units that make up that category. Moderate and advanced analytical methods Correlation A correlation is a statistical calculation which describes the nature of the relationship between two variables (I. E. , strong and negative, weak and positive, statistically significant). It is also known as abbreviate analysis.

An important thing to remember when using correlations is that a correlation does not explain causation. A correlation merely indicates that a relationship r pattern exists, but it does not mean that one variable is the cause of the other. Correlation is Positive when the values increase together, and Correlation is Negative when one value decreases as the other increases Analysis of Variance An analysis of variance (NOVA) is used to determine whether the difference in means (averages) for two groups is statistically significant.

Regression Regression is an extension of correlation and is used to determine whether one variable is a predictor of another variable. It is part of multivariate analysis in which simultaneous relationships among several variables can be analyzed. A regression can be used to determine how strong the relationship is been your intervention and your outcome variables. More importantly, a regression will tell you whether a variable (e. G. , participation in your program) is a statistically significant predictor of the outcome variable (e. . , GAP, SAT, etc. ). A variable can have a positive or negative influence, and the strength of the effect can be weak or strong. However, these types of analyses generally require computer software e. G. , SPAS, AS, STATS, and MAINTAIN. It also requires solid understanding of statistics to interpret the results. Significance: Quantitative Data Analysis is widely used in many fields, including economics, sociology, psychology, market research, health development, and many different branches of science.

Quantitative data is generally more reliable than qualitative data, and good analysis relies on good data. Quantitative data refers to numbers and statistics, and is very useful in finding patterns of behavior or dominant themes. This is more useful than qualitative research, as the latter can be very vague, depending on the methods used to collect it. Thus, it: makes sense of any data that is currently available to researcher. Zanies, summarizes and prepares the data for dissemination to others finds patterns in data helps your results be more accurate, as it is very difficult to add personal bias to numbers obtained when the correct data gathering procedures have been followed Discovers data to extrapolate to be fit on larger sample size than the data was collected due to unbiased approach. Can generate large amounts of is applied to the raw data so that the research can be displayed in a friendlier fashion. It means you can gather percentages and statistics and analyze results using graphs and charts.