Although all children will develop at different rates and in different ways, the sequence in which they develop will be roughly the same as they need to have developed en skill, for example walking, before they move on to develop another such as running and jumping. Development is often referred to on a timeline and is broken down in ages. As development is more rapid in early years the milestones start by being quite close together before becoming further apart as baby becomes a child and then a young adult.
The aspects Of development that children are measured on are physical, intellectual/cognitive, communication, social, emotional and behavioral, moral and identity. All aspects of development are as equally important and all impact on one another. Physical Development There are two main ways that a child develops physically. Firstly they need to develop their gross motor skills – milestones here include sitting, standing and walking.
They also need to develop their fine motor skills which cover the ability to use smaller muscles. So, for example, this could involve picking up small objects, holding cutlery and drawing. Young people will also see many physical developments changing the appearance of their bodies. Everyone?s rate of growth is different. During adolescence, coordination and strength increase greatly and by age 1 9 or 20 the adolescent has full adult motor capacities.
Birth to 3 years From Birth to 3 Months use rooting, sucking and grasping reflexes Slightly raise the head when lying on the stomach Hold head up for a few seconds with support Clench hands into fists Tug and pull on their own hands Repeat body movement From 3 to 6 Months Roll over Start to develop greater agility and strength pull their bodies forward Pull themselves up by grasping the edge of the crib Lift both their hands and feet up in the air and balance on their fronts From 6 to 9 Months crawl Grasp and pull object toward their own body Transfer toys and objects from one hand to the other From 9 to 12 Months
Sit up unaided Stand without assistance Walk without help Pick up and throw objects Roll a ball Pick up objects between their thumb and one finger From 1 to 2 Years Pick things up while standing up Walk backwards Walk up and down stair without assistance Move and sway to music Color or paint by moving the entire arm Scribble with markers or crayons Turn knobs and handles From 2 to 3 Years Run in a forward direction Jump in one place Kick a ball Stand on one foot Turn pages of a book Draw a circle Hold a crayon between the thumb and fingers 3-7 years From 3 to 4 Years Ride a tricycle Go down a slide without help
Throw and catch a ball Pull and steer toys Walk in a straight line Build a tall towers with toy blocks Manipulate clay into shapes From 4 to 5 Years Jump on one foot Do somersaults Cut paper with safety scissors Print some letters Copy shapes including squares and crosses From 5 to areas Can hop, skip, jump, and even stand on one foot for a few seconds. Are able to throw and catch a ball (usually with two hands). Can copy shapes such as triangles or circles, draw stick figures, and even print letters. Are more skilful at using a spoon or a fork, and may even be able to cut soft foods with a butter knife.
Can brush their own teeth, wash themselves and wipe their own bottoms (though parental supervision and help will still be needed). Begin to lose their baby teeth. Begin to lose fat and gain more muscle. Can show off ever-improving locomotors skills, such running, jumping, skipping. Show improved ability to follow movement patterns, and may even be able to perform some basic dance moves. Demonstrate stronger hand-eye coordination (are better able to kick a ball into a goal or throw a ball at a target, for instance). Can play a musical instrument.
Are able to follow rules of a game or sport (soccer, for instance, becomes ore meaningful to them than when they were younger). Can ride a two- wheeled bicycle. Are able to perform movements that are done while standing in one place such as titivating turning, spinning. Show improved skill at performing simple chores, such as making the bed or sweeping the floors. 8-10 years Can combine locomotors and motor skills more fluidly (turn, spin and jump such as in basketball). Continue to demonstrate improvement in coordination.
May begin to experience early signs of puberty (girls usually display signs around age 8 or 9; boys are more likely to enter puberty a bit later, around GE 10 or 1 1). Experience a growth spurt, getting significantly taller and gaining more weight. Can demonstrate improved agility, speed, coordination and balance. Begin to show signs Of puberty such as Oily skin, increased sweating and hair growth under arms and on genital areas. Experience a voice change (usually more noticeable in boys). Are able to perform more complex household tasks such as cooking or doing laundry. 1 to 19 years Young people will also see many physical developments changing the appearance of their bodies, Everyone’s rate of growth is different. During adolescence, co-ordination and strength increase greatly and by the age of 19-20 the adolescent has full motor capacities, Girls After initial breast budding around the age of 10, a girl’s breasts gradually begin to swell. Her pubic hair will begin to grow, darken and become curlier. Their bodies become more rounded, developing the Cleaves of womanhood.
By 13, some girls are almost physically mature, but there are wide variations in the ages when puberty’ begins and ends. A few girls may begin to develop as early as 8 and others may show no obvious changes until late teens. The average age of the onset of menstruation is around 13. Some girls have reached full physical maturity by the age of 14 or 15 and some are only beginning the process depending on the age of pubertal onset, the teenage girl may be almost physically mature at 15 and is likely to be close to her full adult height.
She may have a woman’s figure, although her breasts and hips may still become fuller. Boys Adolescence for boys usually begins later than for girls and usually occurs around fourteen years Of age. However, at the end of this growth period, boys are usually bigger than girls. Boys at this age are beginning to develop sex characteristics such as deep voices and body hair. They also experience muscle growth in early to mid puberty. Penis growth starts a bit later but continues for a longer period. Some boys move through puberty quickly while others worry about their lack of development.
These variations can be difficult for slow developers to handle. It’s important that adults reassure them that their rate of development is not related to final physical potential. Intellectual/Cognitive development A child Starts to develop in this way from a very early stage. These stages Of placement cover problem solving and specific learning. For example, a baby learns about the differences in texture by touching things. And, an older child will learn problem solving skills from doing puzzles.
Birth to 3 years: Recognize the smell and sound of mothers voice Stop crying because the hear a familiar voice Starts to notice objects around them Explores toys and objects in the mouth Explores objects using hands and mouth Recognizing the routines of the day Enjoyment of pop-up and posting toys Playing with building blocks and doing simple puzzles Beginning to realize others are separate beings from themselves Imitates there and tries outstays of behaving in play Becoming more confident but still needs adult reassurance Wants to explore and investigate, solves simple puzzles. Ear of strangers Understand two or three simple things to do at once, e. G. ‘Fetch a glass of Water, give it to your brother and take the empty glass back to the kitchen’ Interest in mark making, painting and books Sort objects by size, and type, e. G. Animals, or by color or shape Begin to understand about sameness and difference in various aspects of life They begin to understand that differences can exist side by side They can begin to e different perspectives on the same subject, for example the same amount of water can look different in different containers 7-12 years Will read to themselves Show interest in certain subjects/activities by the time they are 9 years Begins to understand logical reasoning Understands the value of coins Can write for a good length of time 12-19 years This is a time of maturing of the mind and behaviors as young people develop more responsibility for their thoughts, words and actions and start to think ahead to future occupations, marrying, and having children of their own. During adolescence, the primary tools for knowledge acquisition are the ability to make connections between different pieces of knowledge and being able to make connections with the world as they see it. The pace of development is dependent on how much guidance is given with regard to helping the brain to make the connections between knowledge and practical application in daily life. The more support they receive the faster their pace Of growth will be. During adolescence, education should attempt to distill learning into a moral, social, economic and cultural code that will form the basis of the individual’s identity.
During adolescence, young people increasingly take personal responsibility for finances, accommodation, employment and interpersonal relationships. The process of transferring responsibility from parental shoulders to the maturing adolescent should reach completion at adulthood. Communication Development There are specific milestones here that register when a child assimilates speech and language. This can be measured in a simple way by assessing when the child can actually talk and in a more complex way by using speech to work out what they know. So, for example, by a certain age a child ought to e able to differentiate between colors and to name them. From birth to 3 years.
O -3 months: Makes a variety of”happy’ sounds Will respond to a variety music and other sounds Babies watch their careers face especially the mouth and try to copy its movements 6- 12 months Babbling sounds begin Baby will make four or five different sounds and will turn its head towards the source of sounds Will show feelings by squealing with pleasure or crying Laugh and chuckle to show enjoyment 1-2 years Move from using single words to putting them together as a phrase A child will understand key words in the sentences used In the second year children start to understand the use of conversation and begin to copy Children’s understanding outstrips their ability to express themselves By two they could be using anything from 30 to 150 words 2-3 Years Put words together into a sentence Begin to ask questions what? Why? Etc Can join in well know songs or verses and put actions to words They could be using several hundred words by their 3rd birthday Can scribble and make marks on paper with a crayon 3-areas Start to use pitch and tone May start to use the past tense Vocabulary extends towards 1000-1500 words
Marks made with crayons become more controlled Grammar is becoming more accurate Children’s questions become more complex able to use language to communicate their own ideas Understand that books are a source of pleasure and use pictures to help them follow the story May begin to recognize their own name and a few frequently seen written words They can hold a pencil steadily and copy shapes and form some lettering Fluent speaker able to make up stories Can handle books well Understand that text carries meaning Recognize an Increasing number of letters linking them to sounds Will need help in tackling the complexities of spelling Vocabulary will grow if adults introduce new words and new ways of using language Speak fluently and describe complicated happenings Read out loud Know the different tenses and grammar A teenager’s constant sarcasm and supposed witticisms can become irritating, but they are just testing their new, sophisticated language skills. They may also develop an interest in satire and other slightly off- beat forms of humor.
Their logical thinking ability is also maturing and they may enjoy practicing their new intellectual and verbal skills through debating either formally or informally. Social/emotional development Development here is all about how a child manages their own behavior and their behavior around other people. So, for example, children will learn how to share at a specific age and they will learn appropriate behavior such as when to smile. From birth to 3 years Newborn – 3 months Responds to adults especially mothers face and voice Smiles, concentrates on adults face during feeding Very dependent on adults for reassurance and comfort, quietest when held and cuddled 6- 9 months: Enjoys company of others and games like peek-a-boo Shows affection to known career, but shy with strangers 1-2 Years
Likes to please adults and to perform for an audience May become anxious or distressed if separated from known adults May use comfort object Mostly cooperative and can be distracted from unwanted behavior Plays alongside other children 2-3 years Developing sense of own identity, wanting to do things for self Demanding of adult attention, jealous of attention given to others, reluctant to share playthings or adults attention Acts impulsively, requiring needs to be met instantly, prone to bursts of emotion tantrums Enjoys playing with adult or older child who will give attention, beginning to play with others of own age for short periods -4 years Becoming more independent and self motivated Feels more secure and able to cope with unfamiliar surroundings and adults for periods of time Becoming more cooperative with adults and likes to help Sociable and friendly with others, plays with children and more able to share Beginning to consider the needs of others and to show concern for others Years Makes friends but may need help in resolving disputes Developing understanding of rules, but still finds turn-taking difficult Enjoys helping others and taking responsibility Learns lots about the world and how it works, and about people and legislations Makes friends (often short-term) and plays group games Needs structure and a routine to feel safe When behavior is ‘over the top’, they need limits to be set Becoming less dependent on close adults for support – able to cope with wider environment Enjoys being in groups of other children of similar age, strongly influenced by peer group Becoming more aware of own gender Developing understanding that certain kinds Of behavior are not acceptable Want to fit in with peer group rules Start to form closer friendships at about eight years old like to play with same-sex friends Need adult help to sort out arguments and disagreements in play Can be arrogant and bossy or shy and uncertain The teenager may become self-conscious as changes in their body shape take place, dour occurs and possibly acne develops as a result of oilier skin. So more than anything they need reassurance. Emotional maturity is constantly shifting, moving them between childish needs and adult desires. They aren’t just being awkward for the sake of it. Their bodies and emotions are experiencing drastic changes.
The adolescent is preparing for independence and beginning the move away from parents and close careers towards their errs. They become less concerned about adult approval and turn instead to their friends. Many teens develop very close friendships within their own gender. Most also develop an intense interest in the opposite sex. They see security in group-acceptance and follow peer group dress and behavior codes. Having the same ‘labels’, collecting the same items and playing the same computer game etc. Are very important. Taken out of the emotional security provided by family, they are subject to all the whims of their peers, including potential rejection.
A phase of intense questioning and uncertainty usually occurs as adolescents begin to reappraise parental and community values, beliefs and biases. No longer are they accepted without question. Each one has to be personally accepted or rejected to become part of the young person’s own value system. Parents are sometimes fearful of this increasing questioning and their children’s increasing freedom and independence. Moral Development The development of morality is about the decisions that children and young people take, the principles that they adapt and their behaviors toward others. 2-4 years Beginning to know right from wrong Is more self-controlled and less aggressive. Sees extreme verbal threats such s, “I’ll kill you,” without understanding full implications Wants to be good, but is not yet mature enough to be able to carry out most promises. Years Is interested in being good May tell lies or blame others for wrongdoings because of intense desire to please and do right Is very concerned with personal behavior, particularly as it affects family and friends. May experience guilt and shame Has difficulty admitting mistakes but is becoming more capable of accepting failures and mistakes and taking responsibility for them Is aware of right and wrong; wants to do right. 2-16 years Knows right and wrong; tries to weigh alternatives and arrive at decisions alone Is concerned about fair treatment of others; is usually reasonably thoughtful; is unlikely to lie. 6-19 years Experiences feelings of frustration, anger, sorrow, and isolation Is confused and disappointed, state values and actual behaviors of family and friends May be interested in sex as response to physical-emotional urges. Identity Development A child’s self-concept and personal identify are closely linked to the quality of parenting in their early years. Many theorists would agree that identity placement begins with children recognizing that they are individuals separate from their mother. Self awareness begins in the second year. It can be observed when children talk about themselves, using the concept of the self, when they resist control by parents, and recognize themselves in a mirror. Self concept starts to develop shortly after self awareness is established.
From 3 through 6 years of age, children nurture their self concept by making choices and following through on those choices. They experiment in this stage with doing things on their own. They are often told ruing this time period that what they have chosen to do is wrong. The shame that they feel in these situations leads to the beginnings of the self- evaluation that is so important in the next stage. From age 7 until the onset of puberty, is a time of increased responsibility and privilege. Children begin to learn what their culture deems important. More than in earlier years, they are involved in peer groups, putting them in a position to constantly compare themselves to others.
When that comparison is favorable, they are inspired to work and accomplish more. When that comparison is not favorable, they ay feel inferior to classmates. During this period self efficacy develops and becomes significant. Self efficacy is the attempt to assess one’s worth through comparison with others. The most important process of identity development takes place during adolescence. During this time, individuals must establish their identity in order to make the transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents enter a period of relative freedom from societal expectations. During this time, they feel free to experiment with different personalities and roles.