Nepal is a poor country. It is probably best known for its many Hindu temples and the Himalayan Mountain Range. Mount Everest, the world’s highest mountain, is on its border with Tibet. The earthquake destroyed a number of the ancient temples in Katmandu, the capital city. It also caused, or triggered, a huge avalanche on Mount Everest. Ice, snow and rocks buried tents at base camp. This is where many mountaineers gather fore they set out to climb the mountain.
The earthquake’s epicenter was between Katmandu and Pokka, Napalm’s second largest city. Seismologists said it was ‘shallow, or only 15 kilometers HIMALAYAS (9. 3 miles) below the surface. These types of quakes are often more destructive. They create a greater side-to-side shaking movement. Over 30,000 thousand years ago the bowl-shaped Katmandu valley Was a lake. The loose soil, or sediment, Of the former likeable amplified the shaking movement, or made it worse. The city of Katmandu and surrounding area is home to about three million people. Today, Katmandu is one of the fastest growing cities in Asia.
Yet many of its buildings are badly constructed. Extra floors have been added to some two- or three-storey buildings. This means that they are more likely to fall down when the ground starts to shake. Most of the surrounding areas are mountainous. There, many smaller towns and villages are built on steep slopes. Earthquakes in these places can create huge landslides. Apex predator discovery Fenland’s new prime minister Vampire squid study Auschwitz trial begins Banding anniversary Conference Mammoth DNA decoded Glossary Crossword and Wardresses Puzzle Learning English as a foreign language?
Recommended reading FEEL and SSL 30th April 201 5 -? British English edition Less powerful earthquakes are not uncommon in the Himalayas. It is easy to understand why. The outer layer, Of the Earth is like an enormous jigsaw. It is made up of huge pieces called tectonic plates. These float on the very hot rock deep below the surface. This rock is like a thick liquid. The plates move slowly at a speed of about two centimeters (0. 8 inches) each year. Some move apart from each other. Others slide past and some force other plates underneath them. Earthquakes are a result of these plate movements.
India and Asia are on separate plates. Around 85 million years ago the Indian plate was not connected to Asia. It was close to the island of Madagascar. Then, it began to slowly move northwards. It eventually collided with the Eurasian plate. The Indian plate is now pushing into and under the Eurasian one. This is what has created the Himalayas. This mountain building is still going on. Each year the Himalayas get a few centimeters higher. Millions Of years ago, rocks now at the top Of the mountains were under the sea. This explains why fossils of seashells an be found high up in the Himalayas.
Earthquakes in Nepal and other parts of the Himalayas are part of this mountain building process. This was the fourth major earthquake to hit the Himalayan region since 1905. In that year the Kananga Valley earthquake killed more than 20,000 people. This was centered on the most northerly part of India. Around 10,000 people died in the 1934 Nepal-Briar quake. Its epicenter was in eastern Nepal. Over 80,000 people were killed in Kashmir in 2005. This earthquake struck the northern part of Pakistan. People in Katmandu rushed out of their houses when the ground page 2 Everest and Napalm’s other high peaks.
Since Mount Everest was first climbed in 1953, around 6,000 people have got to the top. In recent years more and more people have wanted to climb Everest. Expert climbers organism group expeditions to the mountain. Each expedition member must have a permit. They cost at least E 16,000 ($25,000) per person. This money is paid to the Naples government. Each year about 300 climbers try to get to the top of Mount Everest. For ten months of the year bad weather makes it impossible to reach the top of Mount Everest. Climbing permits are made out for late April and May.
These months are known as the climbing season. At this time of year, the winds at the top are calmer Other countries quickly offered and the weather is clear. After this, help. Within a few hours Of the heavy snow falls on the mountain earthquake, military planes from and it becomes too dangerous. India began to arrive at Katmandu airport. They brought rescue workers and emergency supplies. Within several days over 50 countries had flown doctors, medical workers and equipment into Nepal. However, the country roads and communications are poor. So it was difficult to reach the people most in need of
Mount Everest. Help. Because of landslides the only Nineteen people died in the way to get to villages near the avalanche that hit Everest base centre was by helicopter. No one knows how many people camp. Other climbers became stuck have been killed and injured. Some on the mountain when ropes and fear that the figure will be higher ladders were swept away. All had to be rescued by helicopters. Than it was in 1934. Officials said it was fortunate Nepal is a popular holiday destination. Many people visit to go that the earthquake struck at noon on trekking, or hiking, in the mountains. A Saturday.
Schools were closed and Tourism is an important part of many people were outdoors. In the Napalm’s economy. One newspaper countryside, people were working in reported that at least 20,000 people the fields. If the quake had happened from other countries were in Nepal in the middle of the night many more when the earthquake hit. This is also would have died or been trapped the time of year for climbing Mount under collapsed buildings, C] began to shake. Because of the aftershocks, most were too scared to return to their homes. Buildings damaged by an initial earthquake can fall down in a later aftershock.
Many people set up small camps on open areas of ground and slept outside. Hospitals treating the injured soon became overcrowded. Officials from the United Nations (UN) said that the earthquake had affected 8. 1 million people. Nonacademic. Com – British English edition HEROINE SETS SAIL Thousands Of people gathered near the port city of Roquefort, on France’s western coast, on 18th April. They came to see a replica of Heroine, a famous French ship. As the ship set sail for the USA, the crowds waved and cheered. American War of Independence, or the American Revolutionary War.
Washington’s army, with help from he French, eventually defeated the British forces. Lafayette was about 1 8 years old and living in France when the Revolutionary War began. He decided to go to America and join Washington’s army. Lafayette took part in several battles and was commended for his bravery. In one battle he was wounded in the leg. Lafayette asked for permission to go back home to see his family. Washington agreed. In France, Lafayette was given a hero’s welcome. Heroine France is often described as America’s oldest ally. This is because French and American soldiers fought alongside each other against the
British over 235 years ago. Then, George Washington (1 732 – 1 799) led the American army. In 1 780 a young French aristocrat and military officer called the Marquis De Lafayette traveled to America. He sailed across the Atlantic Ocean on a ship called Heroine. After arriving in America, Lafayette told Washington some welcome news. A large French force was being sent to help in the war against the British. Beginning in the early sass, Britain set up settlements and colonies on the eastern coast of what is now the USA. By the 1 sass there were 13 separate colonies.
All were controlled by Britain. Yet, at that time, many people in the 13 colonies were unhappy about being governed by Britain and its king. They wanted to elect their own leaders. The rulers of Britain disagreed. In 1 775 fighting broke out. This war is known as the Marquis De Lafayette Lafayette met with the French king, Louis the Sixteenth. He asked the king to support Washington with soldiers and money. Louis agreed. Lafayette then returned to America on the Heroine to tell Washington the news. The French ships and soldiers arrived several months later.
Lafayette continued to fight for Washington’s army until the British rendered in 1783. After the war ended Lafayette returned to France. He died in 1834. 3 Work on the replica Heroine began 20 years ago. The ship, which has three masts, is 65 meters (213 feet) long. The materials used are the same as the original. The wood came from 3,000 oak trees. The ship was even built in the same shipyard. All the sails have been sewn by hand. Heroine has a crew of 80. Many are younger volunteers. In the ASSAI, the ship will visit several coastal towns and cities. Heroine will be in Boston on 4th July, America’s Independence Day.
CLC ‘SEA OF TEARS’ The leaders Of European Union (ELI) ember countries were called to an emergency meeting on 23rd April. It was held at the US headquarters in Brussels, the capital of Belgium. They discussed ways of stopping the migrant boats that are setting off from the North African coast. Several days before the meeting one overcrowded boat sank. Over 750 people drowned. In recent years hundreds of boats carrying illegal migrants have tried to cross the Mediterranean Sea. The people in the boats want to go to EX. member countries. They believe that they will find good jobs in these countries and improve their lives.
Nowadays, most of these boats mom from Libya. The migrants come from many different countries. Many travel from places like Syria, Somalia and Afghanistan. Some are Libyan. Most of these people say they want to get away from the fighting in their own countries. Many others are from African nations such as Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Reiterate, Ivory Coast, Niger, and Ethiopia. Some come from as far away as Nonacademic. Coin”;’ – British English edition 4 Bangladesh. These people are what are known as economic migrants. They want to find work in E countries. Even if they get low paid jobs, they will earn far more than they can at home.
Many plan to send some of the money they make back to their families. M De eternalness After arriving at the coast, the migrants have to find a boat. Criminal gangs in Libya charge thousands of dollars to take the migrants to Lampshades or Malta. These gangs are also called people LIBYA smugglers, or people traffickers. Lampshades is one of a group of small islands, called the Pelagic Islands. Even though they are not far from Tunisia, the islands belong to Italy. The island of Malta is a separate country. Like Italy, it is a drowned. After this, Italian navy navy ship Off the coast Of Sicily. Member Of the CE’. D coastguard ships began to pa- He said that the Mediterranean was troll the seas around Libya. Over the now a ‘sea of tears’. N next 12 months these ships picked up 170,000 migrants. However, this operation was expensive. Italy ULTRA MAN wanted other EX. countries to help. Some EX. members argued that rest- Just over 20 years ago a team of specking the migrants only encouraged eulogists (speleologist is the study of Rescued migrants on a navy ship in Sicily caves) decided to investigate some more to make the journey. The people smuggling boats Last November an ELI force, caves in Italy. The limestone caves are always overloaded.
Most are known as Triton, took over. Yet are near the town of Ultra. The old and need repair. There is al- this has far fewer ships. In recent team found a skull and bones in one ways a danger of them sinking. Months the number of migrant boats of the caves. They looked like the However, if the boats manage to has increased. More accidents have skeleton of a man. It was not possessive Lampshades or Malta their happened. At least 1,750 migrants blew to move them. This was because passengers may eventually be al- have drowned since the beginning the bones had become fixed to the lowed to live in an EX. county. 2015. At the Brussels meeting, wall Of the cave. Also, if a passing ship picks them the EX. leaders decided to increase Caves often form in limestone up, the migrants will probably be the size of Triton. Another idea is to rocks. Mention is porous. This taken to Italy. Italy, Greece, Malta, destroy the people smuggling boats means that water can seep through Germany, and Sweden have agreed in Libya. They will need to get it. Rain that lands on the ground to take in many of the migrants. Permission from the United Nations slowly flows through the soil. As Yet most EX. members say they do (UN) to do this. Does, the water absorbs carrot want the migrants to come to On 27th April Ban Ski-moon bon dioxide from rotting vegetarian countries. Visited Italy. He is the secretary- Zion. This makes it slightly acidic. Over one year ago several general, or leader, of the KIN. Mr. If there is limestone under the migrant boats sank. Hundreds Ban spent some time on an Italian ground the water will seep into Nonacademic. Com”;’ – British English edition it. The acid in the water will dissolve some of the limestone. Over many millions of years this acidic water can create long caves and big caverns.
The water flowing out of he limestone contains calcite. Stalactites and stalagmites are made of calcite. Stalactites are chalklike formations that hang down from the ceiling of a limestone cave. Stalagmites grow up from the cave floor. As the stalactites and stalagmites keep growing, they can meet. When this happens they form ‘pillars’ that join the floor to the ceiling.