Throughout the nineteenth century three political ideals began influencing sat test and their citizens like no other ideals had done before. These ideals were liberalism, so claims and, the most important, nationalism. Each one possessed its own uniqueness which inspired mass followings of people that would last thoroughly into the twentieth century. EAI chi one also proved to form a catalyst for the modernization of many European countries.
However ere, In companion, none of these ideals had the impact that the nationalistic approach had. This I s due to many reasons which ranged from the fact that not everyone was affected by socials or that ninety percent of people in eighteenth century Europe lived in a ‘nationalist’ which a cited as a breeding ground for nationalism growth. A nationalist is a bordered country with its o wan culture and, the main component of a nation, language.
Once politically tapped, this shared he retag and collective ideas could easily take the form of nationalism and depending on the e capability of the leadership in control the approach could take many different directions, the most welkin being: ‘Pride Nationalism’ which originated from France or ‘Blood and Soil Anti millions’ from Germany. One of the greatest accomplishment of nationalism was its ascension on to the dominant doctrine of ordinary people’s lives at the expense of religion whose power ha d become a tattered shadow of previous centuries.
However, that is not to say that, once in power, nationalist government promoted and succeeded in achieving prolonged peace and pros parity; in fact, the opposite usually occurred. Aggressive stances between neighboring countries s during the late ass’s became a formality because every nation looked up their adjoined coo entries as potential threats. As Charles De Gaulle put it ‘Patriotism is when love of your own people e comes first; nationalism, when hate for people other than your own comes first. 1 In this s scholarly work, I will endeavourer to display the significant authority nationalism controlled over governments throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, while highlight nag both the positive and negative consequences that resulted from nationalist approaches. We, fittingly, begin our look at nationalism in the inaugural country to embrace e the ideal, France. However, up until around 1870, there was a greater importance, from very aspect of French society, placed on loyalty to the separate provinces rather than the sat et itself.
Towards the end of the nineteenth century, France underwent a huge modernization a ND industrialization Jonathan Fenny, The General: Charles De Gaulle and the France He Saved (London: Simon & Schuster, 201 0), p. 45 duration. These societal changes are attributed, along with the development of nationalism, to ‘morphing the common French peasant into a civilized Frenchman. ‘2 A sense of identity was given to the French peasantry that only nationalism could provide. The peas nets, unable to speak French, became isolated and alienated from the urban French population.
HO waver, with industrialization came closer relations with French speaking city communities which helped assimilate the peasantry while ridding them of traditional stereotypes such as poor hygiene and inappropriate clothing. Change was the favored worldview and as school became me the realm of inspiring patriotism through the use of songs, gymnastics, and writing. France condemned itself as a kingdom and viewed itself as a fatherland. Visual tools such as maps were e changed to reflect their changing perception of what France was as a nation. In these ways, the peasants became socialized to the expectations of higher French society.
Military conflict brought HTH an additional push forward toward nationalism and political solidarity. Nationalism strength themed as result of growing military presence that was necessitated by the French Revolution and Franciscans War. The Great War further strengthened nationalism and patriotism due to t he need for the conscription of soldiers. The conscription of soldiers into the military, created an environment that relied on the connectedness that the soldiers felt for their country since t ere was a lack of other motives for individual soldiers to fight for a specific cause.
This slenderer animation to fight for one’s county was inspired by the immense nationalistic and patriotic pride e that existed within Europe; no other political ideal could inspire such unwavering loyalty. E empires that contained many nations could not survive in the total war State that character sees modern warfare during the Great War. The Great War, as it did with every country currently rid inning the nationalism tidal wave, aided the growth of the ideal in France through the Inc erased government matron, propaganda, and ethnocentrism among French citizens.
Although we can discuss the nationalist culture and might that France contained, it was dwarfed by our en Ext country, Germany. Eugene Weber, Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France , 1870-1914 (Stanford: CA Stanford University press, 1976) 3 Hudson Meddle, The Long Nineteenth Century (New York: NY, Rutledge, 2002) 2 At the beginning of the century, Germany was not a united nation, a combination ion Of duchies and principalities, perhaps with a common purpose, and a common engage and culture, but separated politically.
However, by the time of German unification in 1 871 the traditional European balance of power had shifted with the rise of Germany and decline of France. Economically, this was due to many different reasons: Germany’s greater inter reaction with the second Industrial Revolution in Belgium and Germany had a more steady pop ululation growth who were highly educated and mobile. Germany also possessed the most IM portent statesman of the second half of the century in Otto von Bismarck, the founder and Chancel or of the Second German Reich.
Bismarck possessed a single goal, German unification, and to achieve this he disregarded solicitations, avoided anymore military conflict and Ignored Eng augment with the Balkans. His goal Of unification was to be achieved with his mastery Of nation list of a shared German culture with Prussia as the undisputed leader. Bismarck, the selflessly aimed Junker now looked to consolidate this new nation in what was a particularly volatile a ND unpredictable European environment.
Domestically, he found the most precarious threats t o Germany’s stability to be Catholicism and Marxism. Both ideals were universal and had t he ability to inspire s great, or even greater, loyalty than nationalism. Marxism, like all left or right twining parties, he particularly distrusted as he said publicly ‘A government must not waiver once it has chosen it’s course. It must not look to the left or right but go forward. ‘4 However this bat el against two hugely powerful ideals was to end in failure for Bismarck.
Mainly, due to the o outrage caused by Bismarck attacks on the Catholic Church that took shape in the form of the F elk Laws of 1871. This defeat against Catholicism became known as Cultural . One of the distinguishing heartsickness of German nationalism is the disposition of those in power to s bring automatically to the defense of “national honor. ” Bismarck, the supreme egotist and the CLC assai hater, identified himself with a sense of a national honor. He would have no one into refer with with matters of strictly national concern.
This immeasurable importance placed on nationalism in Germany would continue longer than any other state; lasting right up until 19 45 when it was reinvigorated to promote hatred by the Nazis. 4 W. O. Deleted, Bismarck and British Colonial Policy (Philadelphia: Blackwell publishing, 1 937), p. 6 The final, but no less important, country to come under nationalist influence during the late nineteenth century was Italy. The main nationalist movement of Italy, ink own as Regimented , culminated in the unification of the Kingdom of Italy in 1 871.
Italian national like German, focuses on the glory of past centuries, in this case nationalism as exerts that Italians are the ethnic and cultural descendants of the ancient Romans. After the unify action of Italy was completed in 1871, the Italian government faced domestic political crises fro m all corners and instant internal tensions, resulting in it resorting to embarking on a colonial policy to divert the Italian publics attention from internal issues; a similar policy adopted by man y countries throughout the nineteenth century.
In these years, one of the most prominent t figures of Italian nationalism was Francesco Crisps whose actions as prime minister were char coteries by a high patriotism that often appeared as a form of obsession for the national unity a ND defense from hostile foreign countries. In comparison, Crisps wasn’t too unlike Bismarck in many ways. Both laced strong emphasis on the impact nationalistic sentiment and both value d national security in an erratic European landscape. However, there were some startling difference sees that drew a line underneath their similarities.
Crisps, unlike Bismarck, saw great value in the M anarchy’s position in society, he even went as far to say ‘the monarchy unites us; the re public would divide us. ‘5 Crisps also saw foreign adventures as a necessity to a newly founded Euro open state, the opposite of Bismarck who placed no importance on the matter. These patriotic c triumphs and examples of Italians military ability turned into tremendous failures. After cool noising small African provinces in the East, Italy’s progress was swiftly halted after they faille d to conquer Ethiopia.
Forced to retreat after sustaining almost 15,000 casualties. Next Italy waged war with Turkey from 1911 to 1912. After defeating the Turks, Italy gained Libya and the e Deaconess Islands. However, these attempts to gain popular support from the public failed, and r billions and violent protests became so intense that many observers believed that the young Kingdom of Italy would not survive. Although it did survive, it did so at the expense of rash trivial exemplifications of Italian nationalistic pride.
Lucy Arial, The Italian Regimented: State, Society and National Unification (London: Rutledge 1 994), p. 38 5 The rise of nationalism as the fundamental ideology of any government, fuel De by imperialist expansion and rapid industrial trade, provoke fierce contest intern continually which convinced individuals that maintaining the welfare of their own nation was the e ultimate priority.