The Mongols Conquests The Mongols are known for their violent ways and conquering but there is much more to the Mongols that many don’t know. The Mongol Empire all started with Genesis Khan, who grew up from a poor family, and lasted for 164 years from 1206-1370. They owed all their success to their successful military tactics, organization and adaptability. Due to their success, they were able to conquer Russia and China and have lasting impacts on these countries.
Due to their many conquering and traveling they were able to introduce technology such as paper and gunpowder to other parts of the world. The Mongols also owe their success to their tolerance of religion at that time. The Mongols were more than just fearsome warriors and had a profound impact on specific countries as well as introducing technologies and displaying tolerance of others. The Mongols were feared for their ruthless military tactics and areas that were about to get conquered would believe that they were sent by God to punish the people’s sins.
At this time in history, the Black Death was sweeping Europe and killing many. Although the Mongols were also dying from the Black Death, they started using the plague to their advantage. The Mongols would catapult the infected bodies into enemy territory to spread the Black Death among their enemies. As their enemies would be stricken with the plague, it made them weaker which made it easier for the Mongols to defeat enemy’s armies. The Mongols also would create a large army in order to invade territories to expand their empire by incorporating ethnic groups into the military.
The invaded citizens were loyal to the Mongols because they would be rewarded for their commitment and cooperation. Due to the larger army, enemy’s feared and lost quickly in war because they couldn’t fight back against the Mongols’ vast amount of troops. (“Why Were the Mongols so Successful in Conquering Much of Eurasia? В« Humanities II – World History. “). The Mongols were able to use their knowledge of being good horsemen to their advantage. From an early age, the Mongols were taught to use composite bows while on horse, so by the time they would fight in the army they’d be very skilled.
They would also acquire practice in coordination and maneuvering on horseback by taking part in hunting parties. The Mongols would be able to travel long distances because they had ‘camps’ where they an change horses if the horse they rode on was tired. What the Mongols goal was once perfectly upturned by Singes Khan, “When Mongols are unoccupied by war, they shall devote themselves to hunting. The objective is not so much the chase itself, as the training of warriors, who should acquire strength and become familiar with drawing the bow and other exercises” (Grant, R. G. 89).
The Mongols also had success because they were very organized and adaptable. Their army was well officered, the small units were able to operate with a lot of independence. The Mongol commanders were capable of ordination large-scale forces on the battlefield using various, unique methods such as smoke signals, banners, etc. An example that showed how adaptable the Mongols were is shown in the promotes they face whilst invading China, Due to the fortification in China, Mongols saw that they needed to acquirement’s techniques and machinery from what they were already using.
They proceeded to use Chinese expertise to deploy rams and mangoes and were able to exfoliate the strengths of their enemies (Grant, R. G. 89). Using the Black Death to their advantage, being very good horsemen ND having organized and adaptable hordes, the Mongols were able to conquest to different areas and be very successful. The Mongols’ successful military tactics can be seen in their conquests such as the Russian and the Chinese Conquests and had lasting impacts in these conquered areas. The Mongol conquest in China lasted for six decades.
It started with small raids, and then later on led to the conquering of the Jinn dynasty, Western Xix and Dali Kingdom. The ruler, Kabuki Khan was able to establish the Yuan dynasty in 1279 and was the first time that all of China was enquired and ruled by a non-native/foreigner. The Mongols had quite an impact in China for better and for worse. They changed how the peasants, merchants and artisans were treated so they would be more appreciated but since the Mongols couldn’t run a government they couldn’t control trading so the trading declined, especially iron, which ruined trading in China (Rossini, Morris).
The Mongols also went on a conquest to Russia between 1223-1240. At first Reagan, Moscow, Vladimir Caudal and Roosts fell and then eventually Kiev, a symbolic centre for Russia, fell. The invaded cities took centuries to rebuild after the conquest of the Mongols and due to the destruction, the Russians thought the Mongols were sent by God to punish them for their sins. This lead to the Orthodox Couch becoming a beacon for guidance and support and serfdom roods due to the land policies of the Church. The Mongols always had a lasting impression on the conquered territories.
The Chinese now knew how to fight like the Mongols and Central Asia, Russia and Persia stayed Mongol for a long time. The affect it had on the Russians can be seen in their culture and art and even the expansion of Russia in the Pacific in the sass may have been helped by Russian Tsars being seen as successors of the Khans as “In Mongol society, subordination to a powerful chief was not seen as subjection but as sharing in his power’. In India, a word was even derived from Mongol, Mogul, has come to mean any extremely powerful person.
Two of the biggest conquests of the Mongols were in China and Russia and had a lasting influence directly and indirectly. Although the Mongols didn’t invent two of the biggest technologies still used today, they were able to use and spread the idea of gunpowder and paper money around Europe. Gunpowder were first discovered by the Chinese around the 10th century and was used for fireworks. Later it was used as a weapon. The Chinese would fill a bamboo tube and then place it in silk wick but the Mongols were able to improve it.
They would pack gunpowder into an iron tube and used Chinese engineers to make a giant version of this packed with rocks- first cannon. The Islamic world took the Mongols ideas to make the first hand grenade. The Chinese then re-invented it and made the first land mine which lead to the Mongols using the idea of the landmine to create naval mines. (Hag, Diana). Later the Mongols were able to use it against the Chinese in was against the Jinn, the Song and also in Japan. As the Mongols Went around conquering lands, the gunpowder spread and Went to Europe as the Mongols tried to conquer it.
The Europeans were able to use this newly acquired information to make new guns for piracy and later on to seize control over the ocean-going silk and spices trade, and then to impose colonial rule. After the Mongolia Empire fell, the Russians were able to use it also to gain back some of their land (May, Timothy 147). Paper money first started in China and was made by mulberry bark. The Mongols were so impressed that they took this idea. They founded a department that was responsible for getting rid of old notes and another department to control issuance of paper to eliminate over-issue of currency by nobles. Paper money allowed the Mongols to noontime taxes and reduce carrying costs of taxes in goods (Rossini, Morris). The paper money was passed universally all over the Khan’s kingdoms, provinces and territories. Gold, silver, gems and pearls were now prohibited from being sold to anyone but the Khan and if they were brought to the Mint, whomever would bring hem would receive a big price for them which meant that now almost all the valuables were in the Khan’s possession (Polo, Marco).
Although the Chinese invented both paper money and gunpowder, the Mongols were able to use them greatly to their advantage and spread it around the Mongolia kingdoms. Tolerance of religion was greatly unheard of during the times of the Mongol Empire among other empires but the religious tolerance that the Mongols had most likely contributed to their success of their Empire. Although Genesis believed in Shamanism, he realized aggressive imposition of Shamanism loud lead to revolutions in conquered lands. He then proceeded to offer tax benefits to clerks of Buddhism, Islam, Taoism, and Insertion Christianity to win their support.
This allowed for good relations between others who believed in different religion and Mongol empire and allowed for religious temples, mosques, churches, etc. To be built. The religious tolerance made others want to be allies with the Mongols, for example when Rome heard of Christian tolerance. The religious tolerance that the Mongols possessed allowed for the empire to be successful and helped introduce cultures to one another (Rossini, Morris). Religious tolerance was extremely rare and if had not been introduced during that time we may not be anywhere close to as we are today towards the tolerance of religion.
The Mongols had major success before their empire fell. They were able to capture China and Russia and have lasting impacts on these areas, spread various technology such as gunpowder and paper money, and have a huge amount Of religious tolerance. Although they only lasted 1 64 years, their empire started with Genesis Khan who was able to unite the Mongol nation after a lot of turbulence. Although many feared these warriors and they are embedded for their violence, for 164 years, they played a huge part in the world’s history.
The impact on countries, the introducing of technologies and displacement of tolerance towards others allowed the Mongols to be successful and not just some fearsome warriors.