However, even though a large amount of research has been tested and it is indicated that there is a relationship between the two, it has been a major challenge to determine whether the results are accurate. Because these two share very similar risk factors to each other, the link remains in doubt. To start this essay, it will first define some key terms that will be used throughout, which include mental health problems, schizophrenia, and violent offending. These terms will be defined so there will be a central understanding to the topic being discussed.
The main focus of this essay will try and determine the link between violent offending and people who suffer room a mental health issue. This will involve a very thorough analysis of the risk factors that arise from mental health problems and violent offending. First, this essay will begin by defining the term mental health problems, more specifically the types of illnesses that will be taken into consideration for the purpose of this essay. Second, it will explore theories and how they attempt to explain mental health and violent offending; and third, argue the links between mental health problems and violent offending.
Increasingly, it is intended that these areas of discussion are to support the argument that people who suffer from a mental health problem are at an increased risk Of violent offending. According to the ADSM-V nonrepresentational disorder, also known, as a mental disorder is “a group of conditions with the onset in the developmental period. The disorders generally start to develop at an early stage, and are characterized by developmental deficits that produce impairments to personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning. (American Psychiatry Association, 2013). More specifically, schizophrenia is defined as “a serious mental illness that causes a disruption to the way a person will behave, think ND feel. People who suffer with schizophrenia will experience a change in behavior, which can result in the way they perceive reality. ” (Australian psychological Society, 2014). According to Queensland Health (201 1), Bipolar, also known as manic-disorder is “a mental illness characterized by episodes of abnormal and persistent behaviors, and at times suffer with depressive episodes. The first theory that will be explored is Neurophysiology of offending. This theory is defined as “structural damage or abnormality of the brain that may be related to violent offending. (Miller, 1999). He then goes on to state that, “Head injuries caused to the frontal and temporal lobes, may affect psychological changes that increase the risk of violent offending. ” Miller (1999) reviewed two studies, one study being the EGG study. This study examined the abnormalities in over 1 250 subjects that had previously committed a violent offence.
Results found that 65% of these 1250 samples suffered from an abnormal personality defect, compared with a similar sized group of those in a normal population, which resulted in only 12%. The next duty reviewed was the Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this study injects radioactive markers into the blood stream and detects whether blood flow or glucose uptake has increased in different parts of the brain. (Miller, 1999). When Miller (1999) reviewed this theory he examined an experiment conducted by Coyer (1 991 which tested 1 7 patients who had a personality disorder.
These subjects were monitored overtime, with results showing high scores of aggressive behavior being linked to low glucose levels. Evidence indicates that damage to the frontal or temporal lobe is related to violent offending. Essence Bifocals theory of crime is the second theory that will be explored. This theory was broken up into 3 dimensions, Extroversion (E), Neurotics (N) and Psychotics For the purpose of this essay it will focus on Psychotics. Essence said, “People who score high on (P) are more likely to be aggressive, anti-social, cold and egocentric. (Samson, 2009). Supporting this theory a study reviewed by Samson (2009), which had been conducted by Rushers and Christenson (1 981 this study looked at two groups of students, one group who had low levels of delinquency rates and those who ad high, those who showed high levels of delinquency also showed higher results of (E), (N) and (P). Another study reviewed by Barrington (1982), showed results from 16 other studies where he had compared criminal offenders with non-offenders.
Results showed that the majority of those that were a convicted offender tested positive for higher levels of these dimensions. (Samson, 2009). A study completed by Dry. Resultant, Dry. Mufti, Dry. Vassal, Forensic Psychiatrist Taylor and Dry. Silver (2000) supports the notion that mental illness is a contributing factor to violent offending. This study examined 961 young adults from April 1st, 1972 through to march 31st, 1973. The results were obtained by using the DISMISS-R, Self-reports for criminal offending and official conviction records.
These methods examined mental disorders, violence and the rate of violence in those with a mental disorder. Further studies conducted were used to determine if substance abuse while offending or before the offending contributes to the threat of the crime. Resultant et al (2000) tested three hypotheses to determine the link between mental health and violence. The first hypothesis tested, tried to each an outcome to establish if substance use during the hours of the offending, accounted for the violence amongst those individuals who have a mental illness.
The second hypothesis presented some insight knowledge on the seriousness of threats among individuals who suffer from a mental illness. The last hypothesis was used to test the developmental history Of violence from those that are living in the community and suffer from a mental disorder. (Resultant et al, 2000). Results gathered from this study showed individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia-spectrum crosier, alcohol dependence and marijuana dependence were 2. , 1. 9 and 3. 8 times more likely to commit an act of violence than those within a controlled group or don’t suffer with a mental illness. (Resultant et al, 2000). However, when a person found with more than one of these disorders, they made up 67% of the link between violence and marijuana and alcohol dependence and are at a greater risk of committing a violent offence which can be anywhere from a rate of 8-18 time more severe than those who only have one or no disorder at all. Resultant et al, 2000). F-rather studies inducted by Brenna, Medicine and Hodges (2000), this study focused on the link between violent offending and mental disorders. Data was retrieved from participants born between January 1st, 1944 and December 31st, 1947 in Denmark. For the purpose of the research, accurate data was provided for all subjects that had been previously convicted of a violent offence and patients who had been hospitalized due to mental disorders. (Brenna et al, 2000).
A total of 335,990 participants, of this total, there were 1 73,668 male subjects and 1 62,322 female that Were examined to test the likelihood of serious mental disorders and the possibility of it linking to violent offences. After the study had concluded, the results obtained showed an increase in risk factors for subjects who suffer with any type of mental illness (1 0% of violent offences committed by men and 16% by women) compared to those who had never been arrested or hospitalized. (Brenna et al, 2000).
This test also found that a considerably higher rate of hospitalizing were linked to violence, which was caused by those that suffer with a mental illness. Other results gathered from this study showed that men and women who suffer tit schizophrenia or another type of mental disorder have a significantly higher possibility to commit a violent offence, compared to those within the controlled environment. During the time these tests had been conducted, the results showed an increasingly higher rate of violent offending In males who have been diagnosed with a mental disorder compared to those within a normative group. Brenna et al, 2000). However, women who were subject to schizophrenia had a stronger relation to violent offending than men. From this study it is suggest by Brenna et al (2000) that violent offending has a Lear association to the individuals that suffer from a mental illness. Further research to support the hypothesis was conducted later on by Wallace, Mullen and Burgess (2004), which saw them take part in a study that examined the relationship between criminal convictions and those suffering with schizophrenia.
This study examined a total of 2,861 people who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and had a previous criminal history. The study examined information collected using the ADSM-IV, criminal records and psychiatric records from those who were treated in a public mental health facility. Wallace et al, 2004). The results obtained showed clear and considerably high number of convictions (8,791) of those who suffer with schizophrenia, compared to 19 people convicted who weren’t diagnosed with a mental disorder.
This study also suggests “individuals who suffer from schizophrenia are likely to have a previous criminal. (21% compared to 7. 8%). A high percentage a violent offences committed was related to individuals who suffer from a mental illness, which was compared to those who haven’t been diagnosed or don’t suffer from mental illness. (8. 2% vs.. 1-8%). (Wallace et al, 2004). In 1975, 14. % of individuals who suffered from a mental disorder were convicted for committing violent offences.
This increased to 25% in 1995. While reviewing this experiment, Wallace et al (2004) found that, patients who had been diagnosed on the schizophrenia spectrum disorder were at risk of being convicted or had previously been convicted for a violent offence (21 %), compared to those within a normative group (7. 8). When these subjects were tested individually, results showed that the five groups that had taken part in this experiment were all to have had a conviction over some point in their life.
Furthermore, Wallace et al (2004) found that majority of the male subjects who were combined with other groups had a remarkably high rate of convictions (31%), which he compared to those in a normative or controlled environment (1 1 . 7%). More recent studies show Faze, Languorous, Hirer, Grain and Liechtenstein (2009) decided to control an experiment, which was used to determine the risk of violent crimes among those who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia. This study found that patients who suffer with schizophrenia, 13. 2% (1054) of them have or have had committed at least one violent offence which was compared to 5. % (4276) of people in the general population. However, even though schizophrenia shows to be an increased risk to violent offending (8. 5%), individuals that were diagnosed with schizophrenia combine with substance abuse, showed a significantly higher risk factor to violent offending (27. 6%). (Faze et al, 2009). In conclusion, this essay has discussed both Neurophysiology of crime and Essence’s bifocals theory of crime. These theories were used to support the link between violent offending and people who suffer with a mental health problem.
These theories looked at the developmental process of the brain with those who suffer from a mental disorder. Studies provided throughout this paper revealed that there is a high risk to violent offending and those with a mental illness. It was further supported, with extensive research, to help determine the relationship between mental illness and violent offending. The studies that have been provided show, those individuals who suffer from a mental illness have a higher frequency to commit violent offences and are more likely to be criminally convicted than those with a normative social tutus.
Therefore, with the research provide, it is supported that a link between violent offending and mental illness does exist and those who suffer from a mental illness are at an increase risk of violent offending.