However, despite the changes in the family definition and formation, family interactions and functioning all remains the same (Anderson & Assessable, 201 1). Family is the most important group that an individual is distinguishably recognized in. It is instrumental on building the foundation of growth and development where an individual can find emotional, physical, and communal support. The family unit is also where colonization begins for children, where the basic needs to learn and develop is provided (Defraud & Say, 2007).
Systematic Analysis of Family of Origin Sandra Men’s family consists of her paternal grandparents, parents, her two sisters, and one brother. From a perspective of an outsider, the Men family can be viewed as a two parent household of middle class status. The family resides in a decent home in a quiet community, where the children were able to obtain higher education, and the family appears to be financially secured. The family functioned through a closed system setting with rigid boundaries, barely allowing input from outside sources.
As a result, not many individuals were aware of the challenges and disorders that went on in the family household, which tells a whole different viewpoint of the family. Within the family of origin, the paternal grandparents and parents can be traced back to Southeast Asia, in the country of Cambodia. The sonogram provided ascribes three generations of the structure and relationships within Men’s family (see Appendix). Men’s parents and both paternal and maternal grandparents grew up in a poor village in Cambodia.
Men’s father was the only child while Men’s mother had two younger sisters. The country at that time was under the rule of communism. This was a harsh time for Men’s parents, grandparents, and aunts as they were targets of the genocide mass murders known as the Khmer Rouge. Under the Khmer Rouge, they were all relocated to the countryside where they were forced to do intensive labor in exchange for a small amount of food each day. There were many killings of innocent people each day, and everyone was horrified as they never understood why it happened.
The harsh conditions that the family suffered in affected Men’s maternal side of the family more severely, and resulted in the loss of her maternal grandparents and both her aunts. Men’s father was fortunate to survive along with his parents. The paternal grandparents were very fond of Men’s mother and saw her as one of their own. They provided her with warmth and comfort as they knew she went through a devastating experience from the loss of her family members. Men’s mother grew closer to he paternal grandparents and viewed them as her biological parents.
After the fall of communism, Men’s parent and paternal grandparents traveled to the borders of Cambodia and Thailand, where the refugee camps were located. The refugee camps gave them food, money, and other necessities to survive. Eventually, the family was given the opportunity to come and live in the United States of America. Seeing how their homeland had become a cataclysm of war, they took this opportunity to start over in the new world. Men’s grandparents and parents traveled to the United States to build a new fife and resulted in the birth of Sandra Men and her siblings.
Since the grandparents and parents came from similar backgrounds, they all shared similar customs and values. The visible customs and values that have been passed down to the next generation are hierarchy, power, roles, and rules. Hierarchy played a crucial role in the Men family, as it was believed that hierarchy is needed in order to maintain power and alliance. Individuals within the family were treated differently based on age and gender. Through age, the paternal grandparents are on top of the hierarchy, giving them more rower and more influences in the family decision process.
For gender, males were seen as more superior than female. Thus, this automatically puts Men’s father to assume the role as the financial provider, ensuring financial security for the family. Men’s mother maintained the role as the leader of the household or the main caregiver, and sometimes the provider due to economic circumstances. Through hierarchy, Men’s paternal grandparents also portrayed the roles as caregivers, but eventually could not maintain the roles as age became a factor. For Men, she took on the role as hero and the retractor within the system as well as the sibling subsystem (Whelan, 2014).
She was expected to be the role model for her siblings and ensured that they were all safe from harm. Family matters or concerns were mainly her responsibility such as taking the blame where there was trouble and trying to find a solution. Men’s two siblings, Sandy and Carving, were the scapegoats in the family and often caused problems for one another. Both Sandy and Carving attempted to take on the role as the hero in the family, but were unable to achieve it. The two are often rebellious and would usually try to ring attention amongst themselves.
The youngest sister and child, Kristin, was the neutral remedy in the family. She was the favorite among all members, providing a sense of homeostasis for the family, keeping everyone calm and content (Whelan, 2014). For the sibling subsystem, the roles that each of the sibling took on, caused them to have trouble getting along. The two scapegoat members in the family often resented their eldest sister Men, and blamed her when they were disciplined by their parents or paternal grandparents. They thought of her as more of a “bossy” or “know it all” sister cause she is the eldest.
Men’s family is managed by a set of rules and regulation that were straightforward and implied. Rules are mainly family values that are put into place for family members to follow in order to maintain homeostasis (Whooper et. Al, 2013). For Men and her family, her paternal grandparents usually had the final word or say, and their approval was needed in every family decision. In her grandparent’s cultures, if an individual was disrespectful or dishonorable in any way, it would implicate the entire family line. The family would be looked down upon and be regarded as shameful.
Men and her siblings were expected to respect and address anyone older than them with honorifics, even if it’s just a few days or months. Most importantly, it was expected that everyone respect and care for their elders, especially their own grandparents. When it comes to feelings, Men and her siblings did not discuss their personal feelings or emotions about one another with their parents, whether it was pleasant or unpleasant. As a one of the traditions in the family, expectations of having a moral and rational demeanor are more important than expressing personal opinions that may bring unnecessary attention to others.
Doing what you’re told, going to school and achieving good grades are customary in order to bring honor to the family. However, as time goes on, familial rules are violated as new behaviors are introduced to the family (Whooper et- al, 2013). Such new behaviors aroused from Men and her siblings as they reached their adolescent years. Men along with her siblings would often break the family rules as they began to explore and search for their ovum identities. The parental subsystem responded to the violation of rules by expressing anger and attempting to place guilt and shame on to the children (Whooper et. , 2013). Men’s mother would express that she was upset and disappointed in the children. In the beginning, this type of response was effective for Men and her siblings. Men and her siblings would believe that they had made a mistake and apologized to their parents. With this, the family system balance was restored again (S. Men & N. Mao, personal communication, October 16, 2014). Nevertheless, the rules were violated over time, again and again. This puts more pressure on the parental subsystems as they felt a sense of loss and powerlessness as their mechanism of responses began to lose effect.
The parental subsystem were reluctant to accept new rules or changes as their children were becoming of age. As an immigrant family, Men’s parents felt that they had already gone through many changes when they came to the united States (S. Men & N. Mao, personal communication, October 16, 2014). Men’s family had to learn and accept new rules for the family to fit in the western culture, including cultural, financial, and educational rules (Whooper et. Al, 2013). This causes an imbalance to the family system as the parental subsystem refused to accept or modify rules as their children were becoming adults.
The feeling of imbalance continued to stay in the family system until new rules are accepted and put into place to reestablish the equilibrium within the family (Whooper et- al, 2013). With the changes in the rules within the family system, the power structure of the Men family changed as well. Originally in the beginning, Men’s paternal grandparents and parents were able to establish a power structure where they utilized their power as authoritative figures to establish rules and behaviors for the children in the family system.
However, the power of authority that the parental subsystem as had is challenged as their children became literate in English and were more knowledgeable about the western culture and society. For this reason, Men and her siblings took on the role as interpreters for their parents and grandparents in public places. In addition, a major power shift began when Men and her siblings found employment to provide for themselves. This gave Men and her siblings more power and a sense Of autonomy. They felt that they were able to make their own decisions, without the voice of their parents.
This change once again caused an upset to the family system as the rental figures felt that they were losing their decisive roles, but at the same time were dependent on their children as their English was limited. At that time, the parents decided to accept the shift in power and also delegated parental authority and family decision making to their eldest daughter, Men, to which added more responsibilities to her role within the family (S. Men & N. Mao, personal communication, October 16, 2014). Thematic Research Gender roles, such as an individual’s thoughts, behaviors and interaction are all defined by colonization.
Right from the start, society teaches individuals hat is expected of them and for each gender (Creeps, 2004). A person’s sense of self is the result of concepts, attitudes, principles, and behaviors that they are exposed to (Witt, 1997). From a family perspective, gender roles are the basics of how the family system functions; therefore, disturbance in the family roles may affect how well the family system functions (Whooper et. Al, 2013). Much similar to other Asian immigrant families, Men’s family arrived in the United States hoping to start a new life and to forget the past.
Little did they know of the challenges that they might face through the adaptation and he challenges of coming to a new land. For an immigrant family, trying to preserve the family traditions and values was one of the challenges many had to face (Chunk, 2001). Asian American families dealt with many adversities, including challenges in adjusting to new familial roles and patterns. Here in the United States, their traditional gender roles were challenged, thus affecting the parent-child roles and power dynamics.
Asian immigrant families had faced role status change as their children acculturated and learned English much faster than their parents. The emotional response to hose changes can lead to less self-confident in the parental figure as shown in Chunk (2001) of Asian immigrant families. The study by Chunk (2001 ) also revealed differences that were observed regarding gender roles on Asian American adolescence. Asian females reported, in the study, much greater conflict regarding dating and marriage than men.
The Asian females expressed that their parents were more protective and restrictive to them compared to their male counterparts as well. Tying this back to the Men family, the family’s gender roles from their indigenous culture were much efferent than the western culture that they were introduced to. As a result, Men’s family also reported facing many hardships, including difficulties conserving their traditions and values as well. Men’s family reported that women’s roles in the family were greatly altered to match with the western society and culture (S. Men & N.
Mao, personal communication, October 16, 2014). Here in the United States, opportunities in employment were much less restricted to women; therefore, gender roles within the family were not being reversed. The United States’ business industry at the time was increasing, especially in the garment industry, which provided Women the opportunity to also be the providers for their family (Eel Spirits, 1999). For Men’s family, this offered her mother more opportunities; giving her a chance to be a breadwinner for her family. Men’s mother obtained employment as a seamstress, and would work during the weekdays.
This lead Men’s father to fill in the role as the caregiver, caring for the children and the elders, while he was unable to find employment. Men’s grandparent, especially her grandfather, was not impressed with the new modification to the gender oleos in the family. He believed that this gave men less power, insulting the men in the family system. In addition, Men’s grandfather was not amused with the role changes in the female adolescence as well (S. So, personal communication, October 16, 2014). Men’s grandparents hold a much more traditional culture and values of their native culture.
Back in their time, women were expected to be great housewives that are quiet and obedient. Women were not expected to be educated and must never be involved in business or politics. For female adolescence, it was expected that they mainly ATA in the house and do not speak to any other male person other than their family members. Men’s grandfather did not want his female grandchildren to go any. Inhere, for any reason (S. So, personal communication, October 1 6, 2014). The expected gender roles of Men’s grandparents were difficult to follow, especially for the female grandchildren.
Men and her sisters would often express that it was unfair; demanding justifiable freedom to have the same set of standards that were put forth on their brother be given to them. Furthermore, the western society required that all children must attend school, Of which the family could not violate without suffering legal consequences. These adversities in the family, once again, caused disequilibrium to the family system, mainly the grandparent subsystem. Men’s grandfather was distressed that the family could not hold on to their native cultural traditions and values.
A sense of insecurity and oddness fell on the family system as certain decision and the rules were not agreed on by all family members (S. Men & N. Mao, personal communication, October 16, 2014). However, as time goes on, Men’s grandfathers feelings of distress Egan to decrease as he decided to let the new roles for family members take its course. Men’s grandfather eventually supported the new roles taken by the women in the household. Men’s parents and grandparents realized how important education was for an individual regardless of their gender.
Both the parents and grandparents supported the female children to further continue their education beyond secondary school to obtain college degrees (S. Men & N. Mao, personal communication, October 16, 2014). From this journey, the Men’s family realized that their migration was in fact, both a aromatic and positive change for their family. The Men’s family accepted that the United States gave them more opportunities for women, giving women the chance to obtain employment, their own independence, and to have control On their own family matters (Eel Spirits, 1999).
Evidence Based Search An analysis of Men’s family origin revealed the underlying theme of the challenges in gender roles, adaptation, and migration. The Men family appears to face many challenges in trying to adapt to changes due to the western culture disrupting original family functions many times. As a result, a reach on “family challenges and intervention” was done in Google scholar of which yielded limited or irrelevant results. The results were off topic and did not reveal any family interventions. The search term was then changed to “family problems and intervention” of which still did not yield any relevant results.
It appeared that Google scholar was not a reliable source and so the search engine was changed to National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NERVE). A search on “family’ was done in NERVE of which was too broad and had many results. The search term was then altered to “family ND children” of which yielded 46 results. Many interventions revealed to be co-educational programs designed to help families. One intervention that caught interest was the Family Wellness: Survival Skills for Healthy Families.
It was a program that is based on a family system theory that works to improve the parental relationship while focusing on the family as a whole; to support healthy family functioning (Moms & Wilson, 2004). The program works with families to provide skills, support, and practice to continue on existing family patterns as well as include new ways for families to work together to overcome challenges of present society. In addition, the program is flexible in terms of treatment and implementation, making it convenient to conduct on individuals, couples, or groups (NERVE, 2014).
For instance, the program was adapted and implemented on refugee youths to deal with the challenges that they face while adjusting to life in the United States (Bridging Refugee Youths & Children’s Services, 2006). Therefore, the program can be adapted and implemented to help Men’s family with the challenges that they face during migration and trying to adapt to the changes of family roles within in their Emily. The program also has workbooks available in Cambodia, which would be very beneficial for the parents and grandparents in the Men’s family.
As a result, Family Wellness: Survival Skills for Healthy Families was chosen as the intervention for the Men’s family. Family Wellness: Survival Skills for Healthy Families consist of six sessions that is implemented through a two hour workshop that can be weekly or monthly, depending on the participants. The intervention includes interactive techniques of role-play or visuals to focus on the overall family functioning, parenting skills, couples, ND other varying relationships among the family members (N REP, 2014).
Each session is titled and focused on a specific theme, the sessions are known as: 1. ) Parents in healthy families, 2. ) Children in healthy families, 3. ) Adults working together in families: Adult relationship, 4. ) As children grow- changes in healthy families, 5. ) Solving problems, 6. ) Sex, drugs, and you: passing on your values to your children. The program is an appropriate fit for the Men family as it will work to strengthen and enhance family patterns, including communication, interactions, and problem solving skills, which are skills that he Men family are having challenges with.
Conflict in terms of gender roles is evident in the Men family due to the rigid tradition and values of the grandparents. The program can be implemented to help the family understand the difference in their culture compared to today’s American culture. With this, the family will be able to reconstruct communication and gender roles within the family. The program will enable the Men’s family to practice working on their communication skills between family members, to understand one another in order to eliminate behaviors and thoughts that do to benefit the family towards healthy changes.