CEO-cosmology is the knowledge people have of their environment/land in which helps them know how to influence resource use, and the beliefs they have concerning their environment whether it is a naturalistic, animist, or totemic (Armed, 1996). New animism is how humans establish a communicating relationship with several non human objects. This relationship is about reciprocity and obligations between the human and non- human beings (Hallowed, 1960). The human beings show respect and how appreciative they are with the non-human beings (Bird-David, 1999).
Perspectives means that “there are many possible conceptual schemes, or perspectives in which judgment of truth or value can be made. This is often taken to imply that no way of seeing the world can be taken as definitively “true”, but does not necessarily entail that all perspectives are equally valid” (Vireos De Castro 1998). At each group of people, will seek to highlight the implications of their cosmologies have for resource use. Bird-David & Naive Bird-David and Naive (2008) focuses on the Nagoya group of South India on their immediate quality of animism and rational epistemology (Bird-David AAA, 2006).
They as a group are not concerned about preserving and conserving the environment. The Nagoya survive by subsistence and on uniting and gathering in which also includes minor trade of forest produce (Bird-David & Naive, 2008). The Nagoya do little if any on how to conserve the environment, unlike the Koki of Sierra Nevada who believe in the “Great Mother” who is the force for nature (Eerier, 2009). The Koki people view the environment as the most important source of life, as it supports human beings, plants and most significant to their culture the “spirits” (Jack 2010).
The Koki understand the earth to be a living thing. In total they take care of the environment well (Eerier, 2009). They do not do anything that might course it any harm (Jack 2010). However with the Nagoya their main concern is keeping good relations with their co-dwellers in which they share the environment with (Bird-David & Naive, 2008). There is peace and understanding with their co-dwellers. Less amazing the amount of understanding they have with these co-dwellers. These co-dwellers are not human beings or neigh boring tribes but animals (Bird-David & Naive, 2008).
With the Nagoya the focus is with the elephants. There is a sense of indigenous knowledge which comes to play here in distinguishing whether the elephant is in a trance or not. This is the indigenous knowledge they have which is key in making it possible to engage with the elephant (Bird-David & Naive, 2008). It is evident that the elephants are important creatures to the Nagoya. The Nagoya believe in spirits in which populate the natural world. These are also their co-dwellers which come to life through animals and other natural beings like stones, snakes, trees and mountain (Bird-David & Naive, 2008).
Devalue is a term used by the Nagoya which refers to animistic beings. The Devalue can mean God or Idol (Bird-David & Naive, 2008). When they possess an animal, that animal is highly respected. They believe it should not e disturbed in whatever it is doing. There should be peace and serenity in a place with a Devalue (Bird-David & Naive, 2008). The Nagoya have had numerous accounts of the Devalue, and they can see an animal if it has the spirit of the Devalue. They have ways of distinguishing such elephants or even other animals like snakes.
They however do not apply the word Devalue to all elephants, rather for specific elephants in particular situations, situations that clear indicate immediacy (Bird-David & Naive, 2008). Elephants usually that are Devalue do not harm the people. There is a sense of care and consideration. The Nagoya engage in trance gatherings the person will enter an altered state which will become an animistic Devalue (Bird-David & Naive, 2008). The reason why the Nagoya communicate with their other-than human visitors is due to certain illnesses and other misfortunes in which they have no control over (Bird-David & Naive, 2008).
They ask their visitors to be healed and watched over, chase bad spirits and misfortune. Nagoya indigenous knowledge of such events taking place is believed to be due to disrupted relations in their world, among the Nagoya and the Devalue or even among the Devalue themselves (Bird-David & Naive, 2008). The Nagoya are concerned with maintaining communication and ensuring a healthy flow of understanding between them and other-than human dwellers. They want to make sure good relations are sustained.
Harming or offending other beings in the forest may result in problems spreading to your family (Bird-David & Navel-I, 2008). The Nagoya do not engage with elephants that do not possess the Devalue spirit, as they might be dangerous (Bird-David & Naive, 2008). There is the good bud and bad bud. Bad bud often destroys plants, trample over houses and attacks people. This is a clear indication that it’s not a Devalue elephant (Bird-David & Naive, 2008). Ethnography of the Nagoya shows that they can communicate to other animals as well, like parrots, snakes and monkeys.
It is interesting how the Nagoya can justify certain animals acting out in anger just like the elephant which killed a man (Bird-David & Naive, 2008). They see it as the animal was disturbed, provoked first or Nagoya people offending it. There is a great deal of respect towards the animals. They show a lot of empathy and understanding towards forest animals. Empathy is also showed to trees, they do not believe in cutting non-dry branches of the Reese for any purpose. They regard this as hurting the tree as it is also a living thing (Bird-David & Naive, 2008).
The Nagoya do not dominate over the animal, they regard them as having special powers which are importance in their survival. There is a sort of reciprocity and empathy between them and the other-than-human persons (Bird-David & Naive, 2008). The manner in which they interact is personal. There is immediacy shown to the environment in specific situations. This however is not about conserving the environment but keeping good relations with co-dwellers. We see in this Edgar that relational epistemology has limitations (Bird-David & Naive, 2008).
Range Wellsville The Highchairs a group of indigenous hunters in Northeastern Siberia are showed by Wellsville (2004) of the power and intelligence of hunting prey. This process of corporal De -humiliation in order to be re-shaped into the image of the prey is highly profound. The understanding of the animal is vital as it helps with attaining the animals view point even though it might not be complete, which is not what they seek also (Wellsville, 2004). Hunters try to “project themselves through practices of mimetic empathy’ into the life of the ere, which makes it easy to hunt successfully. The practice of such gives the hunter the perspective of the animal. This is the closest the hunter can come into experiencing an animal’s view point without being that animal in absolute sense” (Wellsville, 2004). The aim of the hunter is however not to become the animal and adopt its point of view in any sense, but to use the acts of mimesis as an advantage to achieve a double perspective, which allows for him to attain the point of view of his prey while also still remaining as a human person with clear intention of killing It (Wellsville, 2004).
Which is the whole point of hunting, thus perspectives within the Highchairs is not about the transition from one point of view to another (Wellsville, 2004). Rather about how to give in to a single point of view. The Highchairs do not change and become the animals when they hunt it, it would not even make sense because the main idea here is to have control over the animal in order to be able to kill it. That would be highly impossible if human would consume animal bodies (Wellsville, 2004). The question would now be who kills the animal and what the human inside the animal or animal dies.
It would really e confusing. It is risky for anyone to assume the body of another being, as one might lose one’s original self (Wellsville, 2004). Hunting only requires skill and mimicking the way the animal moves, sound and smell in order t blend in. There is no need for body transformations. Also the skill of avoiding the loss of one’s sense of human Persephone (Wellsville, 2004). The totem used by the hunters to help establish contact with spirits in on?s dreams is a wooden human like stature with horns.
This illustrates the whole idea of humans and animals attaining point of view (Wellsville, 2004). The hunter’s WIBNI is carried in the night journeys of hunting. It holds a crucifix in its hands, which serves to protect the owner against evil spirits that might encounter on the way. Wellsville (2004) was given it and told that whenever he killed an animal, he should feed the figure with fat or blood as a way of repaying it for its services and to make sure it does not stop working for him.
John Morton In these recollections of ideas by different anthropologists, theorist and naturists, all bring about different ideas of the effectiveness of totemic in central Australia. A statement by Druthers (1 91 5) states that “animism educes religion to a false reason”. Totemic in Australia is linked to the “Dreamt – the time before time – the time outside time – the time of creation, when the ancestral beings, the totemic ancestors, roamed the land, giving birth to the people of the various totemic groups and naming the animals, plants, landscape features” (Morton, 1987).
A view of nature and life, of the universe and man, which colors highlights the Aborigines’ social groupings and mythologies, inspires their rituals and links them to the past (Morton, 1987). It unites them with nature’s activities and species in a bond of tall life-giving, and that it is ‘relationship between a person or a group of persons and (for example) a natural object or species, as part of nature’. It is worldview in which a human is an integral part of nature, not distinct from other natural species, sharing with them the same life essence (Morton, 1987).
In the Dreamt, the formative period, the various species had not fully assumed the shapes they have today. Their physical manifestations were more fluid. They could manifest themselves in the human form or of a particular species of animal (Morton, 1987). A goanna ancestor could look like man, but potentially change to look like a goanna. This is the basis of the connection between the living people and the ancestral being, the person having a connection with the type of goanna represented by the ancestor (Morton, 1987).
Religion is greater than society and representation of itself; it is also an important dimension of all subjectivity and objectivity (Morton, 1987). The creation of the totemic landscape is important in ancestral transformation. Increase ritual is not just the transference of specific knowledge, it is there to maintain psychic processes which without it would e impossible to transfer this knowledge (Morton, 1987).
Human subjectivity however in is related to the dreaming therefore might have assumed a cycle of re-creation, the adjuring to which person spirituality is delivered in death as a potential from which spirit children emerge (Morton, 1 987) Conclusion have based my closing response on the above analysis which each highlights a different theme with different ethnologist. Of the three readings lead us to conclude that, back in the past, the traditional CEO-cosmologies, beliefs and practices of the Nagoya, Highchairs and aboriginal based on the central idea of an-nature relatedness ensured biodiversity conservation. Just note that it’s on different levels. There are numerous forces or agents of change at work in the modern context that undermines this worldview. It is Very difficult to predict whether these rich cultural groups will be able to survive and thrive among modernized and conscious generations of the environment. Several of whom might view these as superstitions enforced and motivated by indigenous knowledge. These groups might now learn on how to conserve the environment and be cautious of their resource use.