It could be physical, emotional, sexual, economical, spiritual, neglect or psychological abuse of a partner in a (past) relationship or marriage. Thus, women are mostly abused by their husbands, ex-husbands, boyfriends, or ex-boyfriends. Violence against women is widely sanctioned as a form of instilling discipline in women who are regarded to be prone to indiscipline and which must be curbed, especially when women are economically dependent on men. These acts involve all races and ages, but it is major common among black women and divorced omen with children in the homes.
This violence causes a severe threat to women’s lives, such as mental and physical health problems. Intimate partner violence comprises of physical, sexual and emotional abuse against women (Shapiro, 1999). Also, women are victimized by an angry and controlling men who makes it mandatory for their wives to submit to their authority at all costs. This analysis would give an account of how these acts of violence against women originate and how they hinder the ability of women to exercise their rights, devaluing their personal ideas and beliefs.
Additionally, t accounts on how their public and private life is largely altered by violence or the threat of violence to many of these women, preventing them from freely and wholly contributing to the social, economic and political development of their homes and society. Finally, recommendation on the best approach to take to counter this milestone will also be tackled providing an In depth measures on the right course of action to be undertaken. Intimate partner violence against women Intimate partner violence against women, constitutes a large problem in families and societies.
For instance, recently in one of the West African entries, a pregnant woman was gruesomely abused by her husband because she got home late from an event she attended and was not able to prepare him a dinner before he got back from office. She was reported to be beaten for several hours on that evening. The pregnant woman was reportedly stabbed in her jaw, was crippled and lost her seven month old fetus in the process of this brutal act. The marriage had been identified by violence.
She had moved out of her husband’s house on different occasion, but returned to him because of the way divorced women or single mothers are being tagged as irresponsible and prostitutes women in the society. This act of violence almost took her life, but doctors were able to save her, by removing her womb because it was affected as a result of her husband’s annalistic act of abuse. Till date, this abusive man still moves freely in the society without any lawful punishment because of his influential and reputable position in the society.
The patriarchal and broken system of government in African countries should be blame for the frequent affliction of violence against women. Women are being maltreated in relationships and marriages because men see them as weaker vessel that can be toiled with at NY point in time (Fried, 1991). Just from the West African case, most of these perpetrators go unpunished from causing such violence since most of these issues remain inadequately addressed. However, intimate partner violence is a relationship that involves various types of abuses.
The physical aspect of intimate partner violence involves beating, pushing, slapping, shaking and hitting women with dangerous objects. These acts, in different cases have left women disabled in one way or the other, subjecting them to a lifetime of dependency, pains and regrets. Moreover, intimate partner violence leads to ore psychological torture compared to injuries on physical aspect. There is no physical touching or beating involved but abusive men use degrading and abusive words to pierce women’s minds.
This often leads to suicide attempts by women who are abused by men they loved and makes them feel devalued in the society. The use of offensive words by these abusive men as weapon against their wives eventually degrades their self-esteems. Words are powerful weapon against women’s nature. Positive words gladden their hearts while negative words spoken to them could make them sorrowful and regretful for the rest of their lives. Furthermore, sexual abuse is the common aspect of intimate partner violence in homes.
Married women and young ladies are either raped or often experienced attempted rape by their husbands or boyfriends. This has left many women with so much hatred and hindered them from having a meaningful relationship after the abusive relationship come to an end. Many women are still battling this devil called sexual abuse from the hands of their partners. Intimate Partner violence can take many forms and they are usually accompanied by other forms of abuse. Some of them that can be identified are exhibited as follows. Neglect is a means of abuse against women.
It includes failure to provide for family members by denying them food, clothes, shelters, medical care and protection from harm or a sense of being loved and valued. Economic abuse against women includes; stealing from or defrauding them, withholding money for essential things like food and medical treatment, manipulating or exploiting family member for financial gain and preventing them from working or controlling their choice of occupation. Spiritual Abuse against women includes; preventing them from engaging in religious practices or sing ones religious belief to manipulate, dominate or control such women.
Emotional Abuse against women includes shouting at a partner, name-calling, criticism, social isolation, intimidating or exploitation to dominate, threatening their possession or harming their sense of self-worth by putting them at risk of serious behavioral, cognitive, emotional or mental disorders. (Shapiro, 1999). Hence, there are several factors responsible for intimate partner violence against women. The major reasons for such actions might emanate as a result of a bad or a poor upbringing causing them to believe hey can do whatever pleases them to the woman.
It is also worthy to be noted that some women are raised up in poor family backgrounds or in high crime neighborhood would likely settles for any type of partner available to them. Other factors may be high intake of drugs and excessive alcohol by men, poverty, unemployment, especially when it is the male partner that is being jobless, tradition norms within African culture that regards wife battering, harsh discipline and social gender disparity (Jesses, 2002). Intimate partner violence is often connected to inequality of sex or gender.
It is often dewed that abusive men often assault their wives if she earns more than them claiming that it lowers their self-esteem in their homes and leads to the loss of self-dignity. This makes them believe that their wives will stop being submissive to them because of their high salaries. Men’s identity of power is connected to their privileges in homes and societies and their inability to meet their family’s needs often aggravate their anger. Thus, abusive men usually restrict their wives activities and relationship with other people in order to confine them and it often destabilize women’s minds.
Fox and Benson used the factor of household economic stress and neighborhood disadvantage to explain the cause of intimate partner violence. They elaborate how household economic stress comprises the objectives and us objective aspects of employment and income. Objective conditions such as poverty or unemployment indicate a household under economic stress, violence is more likely to result; these Often occur because the neigh broods are socially isolated from one another. The neighbors mostly get discouraged because of the fear of law enforcement, (Fox and Benson, 2006).
Furthermore, intimate partner violence causes a severe threat to women’s lath and state of mind, but it is frequently seen as a culture that support men to scold their wives when they are involved in an offensive act. This usually occurs in African countries because women are subjected to their husbands through the bride price that was paid to the wives families as marital rites. Thus, this act of violence is seen as cultural beliefs in most African homes. It is also understandable that many cultures created inequalities of rights in the traditional homes. (Shapiro, 1999).
In addition, intimate partner violence could be caused by high quantity of alcohol intake, which is mostly linked to all types of violence. Jesses states that research on social anthropology of alcohol drinking suggests that connections between violence, drinking and drunkenness are socially learnt and not universal. The majority of African countries, abusive men hide under the pretense of alcohol in order to torture their wives and they are not likely to be held responsible because African cultures permit men to scold their wives when they misbehave. African societies see this act as a discipline tool to scold women who are disobedient.
This act of violence increases in the Africa societies cause of the lack of penalty against men that maltreat their wives. According to Morrison, Ledgers and Boot, alcohol abuse by the male partner is strongly associated with violence. Women with male partners who come home drunk frequently are four to seven times more likely to suffer violence in their homes. Thus, many cultures commend the use of physical and verbal violence by men against women in a certain situation. (Jesses, 2002). Moreover, there are signals that tells most abused women the kind of men they are about to marry at the beginning of their relationships or courtships.
The majority of victimized women involved in this act of violence is more vulnerable in a relationship and get so carried away by ignoring these obvious signals that abusive men demonstrate. An abusive man is most likely to be aggressive, obsessed, domineering and to use piercing words during courtship or relationship, but most abused women ignore all these negative attributes in men because they are being carried away with ‘love’ and end up regretting their actions of marrying the abusive men while in the marriage.
Intimate partner violence results in many health and psychological problems or women that have been victimized in their marriages and relationships. Commonly, the effects are; mental disorder, death , post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, anxiety and low self-esteem, as well as behavioral outcomes such as alcohol and drug abuse, sexual risk taking and a higher risk of subset aunt factorization. It is obvious that physical injury only reflects the minor part of negative health problems. (Morrison, Ledgers, Boot, 2007).
Thus, the life span of abused women has been shortened and they often have fear in future relationships with men because Of their past experiences and this moieties leads to their social isolation. Their emotional and social lives get affected because of this. Often, women are provoked as a result of abusive relationships, changing them into violent people. Really, this turns submissive women into radicals. The desperation and powerlessness makes them settle for an abusive relationship and marriage, but unfortunately, they are abused by these men they had trusted and they end up being the victims.
There are different perspective and approaches that have been adopted to comprehend this issue. In order to remedy this type of violence against omen, the society needs to take more proactive approach from communities, religious groups, non-governmental organizations (MONGO) and government (health workers and law enforcement agents). The approach used by human rights is based on obligations of the state to acknowledge, protect and fulfill the rights of every human and thus prevent or eradicate and punish acts of violence against women and girls. It recognizes this violence against women a violation of several human rights.
Rights to life, autonomy, liberty and a person’s security; the rights to be free from cruelty and torture; the right to privacy etc. He Human Rights are surrounded by regional and international treaties and laws and national constitutions. For example The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms Of Discrimination against Women (CEDAR), necessitates that nations party to the Convention should take all required measures to end violence against women, same to the Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women (Convention of Belle do Para, 1994) which especially addresses such violence.
Another approach adopted is response to such violence upon its occurrence through law enforcement and justice is ensured. It involves identifying the perpetrators, ascertaining their guilt and making sure they are sentenced appropriately. This approach primarily relies on deterrence, incarceration and then punishment and rehabilitation of perpetrators. The most useful approach is the public health approach. It is a science driven, interdisciplinary population based and interjectional approach that are based on the ecological mode that stresses on primary prevention.
This would provide victims of these acts with multidisciplinary services including counseling and other resources, which they would need for full recovery and integration in their homes and societies. The public health approach provides a different vantage point that violence is an outcome of multiple risk factors or causes therefore aims to provide the highest benefits to maximum number of individuals extending good care and safety to the entire populations (WHO, 2010).
There should be provisions for compensation like legal support and to ensure that the perpetrators are brought to justice and rehabilitation. In addition, men should be educated from infancy on the concept of manhood. They need to be taught on how to be supportive and protective of their families as a means Of eradicating all forms Of gender-based violence against women. Non- Governmental Organizations (Nags) should as well stand up and champion a public based campaign, seminars and workshops to eradicate gender-based violence against women.
In addition, Violence against women is not only a crime; it is also a violation of women’s right and profound violation of their bodily integrity, rights to dignity, security, and freedom from discrimination ( Fried 2003). In order to prevent intimate partner violence in African and western societies, governments must be able to protect women’s right by establishing laws, policies and practices that protect women. Making sure abusive men face justice and more awareness is vital.
Women need to be conscious of the options that are open to them in order to seek urgent help from appropriate bodies before it gets too late and end up with a lifetime of physical or emotional damage or death. High levels of female empowerment seem to be protective against intimate partner violence. This power can be derived from many sources such as education, income and community roles, although not all of these convey equal protection or do so in a direct manner. In most studies, high educational attainment by women was associated with low levels of violence.