Often, a few individuals would be assaulted to remind other that conformity is the safest option, which meant that many would go along with Fascist ideas to avoid abuse. Fascist squads estimated to have murdered 2,000 opponents by 1926 due to the ban of political activity outside the Fascist part and imposition of press censorship. These killings were a demonstration for others that if you went against Mussolini and the Fascist party, you would be severely punished, which repelled many from going against Fascism and thus giving Mussolini control. The National Fascist Party (PEN) was also a tool that Mussolini took advantage of.
After Mussolini’s declaration that the Fascist government would be a ‘toleration’, he then relied on the police, courts, civil service and the army to maintain law and order, which installed fear in much of Italy. The PEN was to serve the Duce, which meant that this infliction of fear on Italy gave Mussolini the control he desired. By the end of 1 928, Mussolini organized a further purge of Fascists suspects of disloyalty, this created terror for those within the party, which catalysts the total subservience and obedience the party ad towards him, giving the Duce further control.
Anti-Semitic measures were another application of terror for Mussel inn’s quest for control. He was eventually persuaded that there was a Jewish influence behind the resistance to Fascism in Italy and across Europe, so in 1938 the Manifesto of Racial Scientists was approved stating, ‘Jews don’t belong to the Italian race’. This worried many Jews as they were being attacked and would implement a loyalty for the fascist regime in order to escape Mussolini’s proclamation.
Italian Jews suffered immensely from the 938 Anti-Semitic laws, losing much liberty and living standards, which meant they lived in constant fear and terror, obeying Mussolini. In 1943, property was confiscated from Jews and 7,500 were sent to death camps across Eastern Europe. Only 600 Jews survived, which generated much terror for other Italians in case they were accused of the same sort, leaving Italians to follow Mussolini’s laws and ideology and therefore Mussolini was able to assert much control.
Eventually Mussolini had learned his limits of terror and that it started to lose him some sort of control. In January 1 925, Mussolini made a speech taking accessibility for Fascist violence, which the Chamber supported, making him appear respectable. The speech was followed by arrests from the National Militia and measures against his political opponents, which he was able to do so as he seemed righteous, however this was an act of terror itself, depicting if you were a threat, you were legible to imprisonment, leaving the Duce with much control and power.
However, the Church were beginning to adopt a disliking for Mussolini during 1937-38, when there was much disagreement over the Anti-Semitic measures as the Church did not like his requests. This eater led to the Church abandoning Mussolini from 1938-43 because of his acts of terror, which meant he lost a large degree of control over Italy. It is plausible that Mussolini’s control over Italy during 1925-43 was not dependent on terror but also on other factors. The Duce was tactful and invested in making sure the elites were on his side.
The industrialists were pleased by Mussolini’s outlawing of the Socialists and Catholic Trade Unions in the Vivian Pact 1925. Mussolini also created economic policies to gain support of the industrialists, such as taxes being lowering and price and rent intros being abolished. These measures ensured the support of the industrialists, which meant Mussolini was able to assert more control over a number of people as they were in favor of his ideologies. Mussolini was also able to gain control by being deliberately vague about his aims and this had enabled him to convince groups that Fascism would solve their problems.
The conservative figured of the establishment – the King, the military leaders, industrialists, landowners and even many deputies in parliament regarded him as a strong man who would safeguard their interest against the left. The mass support of the elites meant that Mussolini was in a position where he had much control and could use these supporters to his advantage. Mussolini emphasized that the military shared a common interest with him in expanding the armed forces and pursuing an aggressive foreign policy.
The support of military was essential to demonstrate his authority and his powerful ways, which further encouraged Fascist support to favor him. Mussolini was also able to impress the King, whom many liked and so the supporters of the King also turned to Mussolini, giving him the ability to empower Italy with his control and ideas. Tactfully, Mussolini made sure propaganda was present in promoting him. The newspapers would only print positive news, reflecting the Fascist Party as a dominant, successful government, depicting Mussolini’s control as a vital tool to affluent and powerful Italy.
Infants began school with a prayer – ‘l believe in the genius of Mussolini’, which meant that Mussolini was able to indoctrinate young children from early on in their lives to be able to gain support and control. Primary school textbooks also presented Mussolini as a err and in 1929, teachers in all state schools and in 1931, university professors swore on an oath to the loyalty of the King and the Fascist regime, granting Mussolini with control over school systems.
In 1 937 it became compulsory to join youth organizations where they would learn pre-military training and political instruction, as well as swearing to the loyalty towards Mussolini. These organizations automatically gave Mussolini control over youths as they wear sworn to be a fan of the Fascist regime and the Duce. In 1925 the Depilatory was set up that provided leisure activities to influence rowers towards a Fascist view of life, which allowed Mussolini to shape the older generations view on him and the Fascist Party, slowly granting him with more control.
The Cult of II Duce was another programmer that projected a dynamic, energetic, ageless leader through the news and photographs, whereby Mussolini was on motorcycles to show his courage and youth as well as playing the violin to present his skill and intelligence. Mussolini’s slogan was “believe, obey, fight! ” and “Mussolini is always right” was stencil on buildings to instill a sense of control and power of Mussolini for Italy to see. Mussolini would also have his shirt off when he presented his speeches to impress the crowd.
These measures of propaganda conducted a great image of Mussolini, which made many favor him and take a liking to his ideas, allowing him to have control over those who gave in to his propaganda. The Catholic church was a critical opponent Mussolini had to befriend in order to sustain a clear control over Italy, especially as 90% of Italy were Catholics. He realized an agreement would strengthen his personal popularity and raise the regimes international and domestic standing.