Fire Prevention b. Fire fighting One of the most important requirements for fire prevention is good housekeeping—housekeeping of the kind that fall under the jurisdiction of he maintenance department rather than the Housekeeping department. This kind of good housekeeping automatically, through orderliness and the elimination of hazards helps to prevent fires. The Chief engineer is normally responsible for fighting fires in each hotel.
He is responsible for instructing employee in his department on organizing and supervising FIRE DRILLS and for the maintenance of a well trained group which acts as a fire patrol as well as fire fighters. The instructions given to maintenance employees should enable them to be able to classify types of fires and to be familiar with the roper methods of extinguishing them.
Some fires calls for wetting and cooling method below the ignition point ( ignition is the process of something starting to burn), others require blanketing effect ( a security blanket provides some one with a feeling of safety and comfort when they are in a situation that worries them or makes them feel nervous)which either excludes or dilutes oxygen to a point where it will not support combustion ( combustion is the act of burning something or the process of burning A basic knowledge regarding the fire should assist in preventing fires and handling them if they o occur.
Three components are necessary for a fire to start, if one of the three , or is removed then the fire does not happen or it is extinguished . The three parts are: a. Fuel….. Something to burn b. Air……. Oxygen to sustain combustion ( to keep fire going) c. Heat…. Gas, electricity etc. CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES: For all practical purposes , there are three general classes Of fires: a. Class A b. Class B c. Class C CLASS A: Fires occurring in ordinary dry combustible materials such as : a. Wood b. Textiles c.
Papers d. Rubbish ( Rubbish consists of unwanted things or waste material such as seed paper, empty tins and bottles and waste food which can catch fire) etc. In these fires the quenching (putting off the fire) and cooling effect of qualities of water or solutions containing a high percentage of water are the first importance. CLASS B: Fires in inflammable liquids such as oils, grease ( Grease is a thick oily substance which is put on the parts of cars and other machines in order to make them work smoothly)etc.
In these fires a blanketing effect is essential. CLASS C: Fires in electrical equipment where the use of non conductive agents are required for the extinguishing of them. TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS: For Class A fires the soda acid extinguishers , which ejects water under gaseous pressure when they are INVERTED, are effective. Their use is limited, however to small fires since they contain only two and half gallons of water. Direct application of water hoses ( a hose is a long flexible pipe made of rubber or plastic.
Water is directed through a hose in order to do things such as put out fires , clean cars or water gardens) must be used when fires are beyond the capacity of these small extinguishers. For class B fires Carbon Did Oxide fog or foam ( when there is fog, there are tiny drops of water in the air which form a thick cloud and make it difficult to see things) ( Foam consists of mass of small bubbles that are formed when air and a liquid are mixed together) extinguishers are required. For Class C fires Carbon- did -oxide fog is the extinguishing agent of choice since it is non conductive.
Care must be exercised in using carbon dioxide extinguishers. The nozzle should never be touched with bare hands when the extinguisher is in operation. ( the nozzle of a hose or pipe is a narrow piece fitted to the end to control the flow of liquid or gas) Regardless of the type of fire carbon tetrachloride or mixtures intonating carbon tetra chloride should not be used. DISTRIBUTION OF EXTINGUISHERS: As a guide to the adequacy of protection , given below are some tips: Class One: In light hazard occupancy , such as offices or public areas, there should be one fire extinguisher for every 5000 sq Ft. o located that an individual will not be required to travel more than 100 feet to reach the nearest extinguisher. Class Two: Ordinary combustible occupancy , where fire of broader extent may be anticipated , such as kitchen boiler etc. Locations Of this nature should have an extinguisher for every 2500 square feet so located that an individual will to be required to travel more than 50 feet from any point to reach the nearest extinguisher. Class Three: Hazardous occupancy , such as wood working shops, Up holsters shops, Paint shops, etc, .
This class should be protected with one extinguisher for every 2500 square feet so located that an individual will not be required to travel more than 50 feet from any point to reach the nearest extinguisher plus special extinguishers in confined areas for special hazards. It is to be understood that fire hose racks connected to stand pipes or emergency water supplies are included in the extinguishers mentioned above. METHODS OF EXTINGUISHING FIRES: To extinguish a fire the three principle methods are: a. Starving……………. Removing the fuel b.
Smothering………. Removing Air ( Oxygen) c. Cooling ……………. Removing the heat Therefore one of the sides of the triangle is removed. The fuel is that which burns , heat is that which sets the fuel alight and Oxygen is present in air so if air is excluded from the fuel and the heat then the fire goes Out. For example , should the cloths of some One working in the kitchen catch alight then the action to be taken is to quickly wrap a fire blanket round the person and roll them on the floor. In so doing the flames have been cut off from the source of air . The oxygen has been taken out from the triangle). In the event of a fire , windows and doors are to be closed so as to restrict the amount of air getting to the fire . FOAM extinguishers work on the principle that the foam forms a BLANKET thus excluding AIR from coming into contact with the fuel. Should FAT or OIL in a pan ignite , then the pan should be quickly covered with a lid or other item or fire blanket so as to exclude air . It is also essential to turn off the sources of heat , gas or electricity etc, so that the HEAT is taken from the triangle.
Water extinguishers by dousing (putting off) the flames thus taking the HEAT out of the triangle provided the fuel is material such as Wood, Paper etc. If fat or oil is alight WATER MUST NOT BE USED, as it causes the ignited fat to spread thus increasing the heat … As it causes the ignited fat to spread thus increasing the heat water extinguishers must not be used on live electrical equipment because water is a conductor of heat. In the event of small fire in a store, immediately to remove items in the stores to prevent the fire .
Fire doors are installed for the purpose fire resistance. PROCEDURE IN CASE OF FIRE IN HOTELS: . Close windows and doors of the room in which the fire has started. If in a general area , close doors of all adjacent rooms. 2. Ascertain the extent and serious of the fire. 3. Ring Fire alarm box or call switch board operator for internal assistance. Remember that it is advantageous to avoid the hysteria which accompanies a general fire. 4. In informing a telephone operator give a quick description of the location and extent of the fire.
This will avoid loss of time through misdirection or the maintenance department or the out side fire department. 5. Employees of the maintenance department should proceed to the location f the fire with extinguishers from their department as rapidly as possible. A fire cart in rooms is recommended. 6. Employees of the maintenance department should consider it their duty to remove all combustible or volatile materials away from the fire area. 7. The first consideration must always be for the safety and peace of mind of the guest and staff.
Personnel having contact with guests must maintain an attitude of calm and reassurances. 8. If the fire is in a guest’s room , the guest should be evacuated (removed)immediately into the corridor and corridor and the adjoining room doors should be closed. 9. It is recommended that the emergency stairs are used for evacuating guests. It is important that all catering establishments passage ways are kept clear and that doors open outwards. Fire escape doors and windows should be clearly marked and fire fighting equipment must be readily available and in working order.
Periodic fire drills ( it is a designed demo of fire fighting for the maintenance personnel)should occur and be taken seriously since lives may be endangered if there was a fire. Fir alarm bells must be tested at least four times a year and staff should be instructed in the use of fire fighting equipments. All extinguishers should be refilled immediately after use. All fire extinguishers should be manufactured in accordance with the British Standards specifications ; they should be filled with an additional color code to indicate the type and with operation instructions on them. . Red…………. Water b. Cream……… Foam c. Black………. Carbon dioxide Dry Powder d. Blue… E. Green…….. -HALLO ( VAPORIZING liquid) USE OF PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS: WATER: ( Red ) Water is used for fire in ordinary combustible materials such as wood, paper etc. Water has better cooling properties than most other agents , therefore it s especially suitable for fires that may start up again if they are not cooled sufficiently. Most water extinguishers contain carbon dioxide gas which expels the water. Disadvantages: a.
Because water is a conductor of electricity it must never be used on live electrical equipment. B. Water must never be used on fat fires because it may cause ignited fat to spread. FOAM: (Cream): Foam puts out fires by forming a blanket of foam over the top of the fire. It is particularly good for putting out fat fires because of the foam stays in position and so stops the fire re-igniting. Foam can also be used on fires of tartar materials. Disadvantages: a. Foam is a conductor of electricity and must not be used on live electrical equipment. B. Foam is not effective on free flowing liquids.
CARBON DID Oxide CA) ( Black Carbon dioxide gas is used on fires of inflammable liquids and has the advantage that it does not conduct electricity. Disadvantages: Carbon dioxide gas has a limited cooling properties and therefore is not the most efficient way of putting out a fat fire. DRY POWDER: ( Blue ): Dry powder is commonly used for fat fires. It does not conduct electricity and some all purpose powders can be used on fires in natural materials. Powders based on bio carbonate of soda are used in most extinguishers. Disadvantages: Dry powders usually have limited cooling properties.
HALOES: ( GREEN): These are also known as BCC which is short for BORDERLINE FLUORINATED ( chemical name). This is a gas which does not conduct electricity. Disadvantage: If used in an enclosed haloes give off a thick cloud which can irritate the user’s throat and it should not be inhaled. OTHER EXTINGUISHERS: A. Fire hoses B. Water sprinkler systems FIRE HOSES: Fire hoses are used for similar fires to though classified under water fire extinguishers. It is necessary to be familiar with the instructions displayed by the fire hose using it.
WATER SPRINKLER SYSTEMS: These consists of sprinklers from the main water fitted in the ceiling. The system is designed to automatic spray water over the whole area when the temperature a free set level . CARE OF ARE EXTINGUISHERS: Fire extinguishers may be rarely or never used frequently. When they are needed , they are needed in a hurry and it should be in working order. All fire apparatus , extinguishers , hose, valves, and sprinkler systems should be inspected semi annually and carry indicating the date of inspection and the initial of the inspector.
This work may be done by trained maintenance department employees or by an outside contractor. Used extinguishers and hoses should never be replaced until they have been properly serviced. In the case of woven fire hose, the procedure involves stretching the hose flat and drying in thoroughly before replacing. If this procedure is not followed weak spots will develop which rupture the first subsequent time that water pressure applied. Tank type( soda acid, fog and foam) extinguishers must be re charged. This work should be done by experienced professional people.
In edition to the periodic inspection described above, it is necessary that soda acid extinguishers be tested at least every two years to ensure the solidity of the out side contractors and to ascertain the the condition Of the discharge hose and nozzles. These tests will avoid the possibility of explosions which will occur where tank bodies are weakened by corrosion (rusting) or nozzles plugged. Both housekeeping and maintenance department employees should constantly be on the alert to ensure that fire extinguisher stations are not used to store or serve as temporary resting places for room service trays or cleaning materials.
FIRE REGULATIONS: The following the suggested procedure outlined above, each hotel should develop a set of fire regulations. These regulations should be printed, framed and posted adjacent to every extinguisher and in service landings and personnel locker room. Fire Alarm Systems: The fire alarm system and its coding should be thoroughly understood by every maintenance department employee. Printed copies of the code should be displayed in the maintenance department , all shops and service stairways. Fire alarm systems should be tested monthly.
These tests might well be conducted in concert with employee fire drills. If an alarm has been pulled it should be reset and the glass replaced immediately following the fire. This is a responsibility of the Chief Engineer of the hotel. The Chief Engineer should ensure that the fire alarm system has an uninterrupted supply of electric power. He is responsible for ensuring that the system is connected to the emergency Generator or in the absence of such a generator , an alternate supply of power , such as a bank of storage batteries , which are properly connected and in working order.
Fire Doors: Like other fire equipment, when the need arises their proper functioning is very important. Therefore , they should be under constant observation and care. Fusible links and door closers should be inspected semi-annually and fire doors must never be blocked. Fire Drills: The hotel management and the Maintenance Department should cooperate in organizing fire brigades around a cadre of Maintenance Department employees. This brigade should, at the time of alarm is called, be so organized that it can arrive at the sound of alarm properly equipped in less than two minutes.
Employees of other departments, such as Housemen , Maids, and Waiters can be organized to assist in such tasks as removing furniture , directing guests etc. Properly organized drills hold on a monthly or bi-monthly basis can serve as a very effective weapon in campaigning against a potential emergency. CHOICE OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER: Type of fire risk Type of extinguisher 1. Fires involving wood, paper, Water CA (carbon dioxide) Fabrics or similar materials operated by piercing a gas Requiring cooling or quenching. Cylinder, the gas then When hoses are used for hose forces the water out. Sighting a fire the should be connected to the mains water supply. Made in several sizes, ( a canister is a strong Chemical substances) soda SODA ACID: Contains a canister Metal container. It Used to hold gases or Of bicarbonate of And forces water out of Nozzle. 2. Fire involving flammable liquids , FOAM: Petrol, oils, greases , fats Contains a small canister Requiring rapid action. Contain Eng different when Is forced out of the Within a large one , both Blanket, so preventing fire and 3. Fires involving live electrical A non conducting must FIRE PROTECTION CHECKLIST: Chemicals which Mixed form foam.
This Canister and forms a air reaching the thus causing it to go out. DRY POWDER CO 2 (gas) Apparatus Extinguishing agent Be used. The manager Of each hotel should either personally supervise the use Of the hecklers or delegate the responsibility for examining the checklist after the Engineering department has made the survey. Any items that are shown as effective as a result of the review should be promptly entered in a log book for correction . The management should follow up and insist that appropriate action be taken on every open item in the log book until the deficiency is corrected.
A notation (A system of notation is a set of written symbols that are used to represent something such as music or mathematics) should be made in the log book when the defect has been eliminated. The following items should be checked on monthly basis. PARTICULARS exits and exit lights. 2. Stairways on fire escapes Un obstructed. 3. Clear air-conditioning filters 4. Check filters, kitchen hoods 5. Test wire alarm system 6. Check floor lamps for long or Worn cords 7. All sprinkler control valves open 8. Check fire pump operation Date checked/Log page no. 1. Check all 9.
Check fire supply lines and tanks Check watchman’s time chart 10 See that all house fire alarm boxes 11 And hose outlets are unobstructed. 12. Clear rubbish at shaft bottoms 13. Check fire doors shutter for defects 14. Are any extinguishers missing? 15. Are stair doors kept closed? 16. Remove waste behind stoves, ranges Refrigerators in kitchen 17. Are there clean housekeeping conditions? 18. Check ” No Smoking’ signs in restricted areas? 19. Check fire hazards paint shop 20. Check fire hazards carpenter shop 21 . Check fire hazards upholstery shop 22. Check fire hazards cellars, ballrooms, And other public areas. 3. Fire appliances visible for use? 24. Exits obstructed signs and lights? 25. Plentiful supply of ash receivers? 26. Check hazards in sample rooms? 27. Rubbish or waste in anti rooms? 28 Check hazards in sample rooms? 29. Flame proof decorations used? 30. Emergency lighting system? 31 . Check laundry ducts and hoods? 32. Hold fire brigade drill 33. Check fuse boxes for improper fuses. 34. Are vital records safely protected? 35. Clean all electric motors 36. Examine and check space heaters. 37. Test kitchen range extinguishing systems 38. Do window screens open easily? 39. Clean all vent ducts 40.
Is exit information posted in guest rooms? 41 . Are more ash trays needed? FIRST AID EQUIPMENT: Besides the First Aid box or cupboard required to be kept in all kitchens , a more comprehensive stock of materials is kept in the housekeeping department , and the following are the items which might be included. 1 . Water proof adhesive dressings . Roller bandages 3. Triangular bandages 4. Cotton wool 5. Gauze 6. Clinical thermometer Pair of tweezers 7. 8. Eye bath 9. Pen torch 10. Feeding cup 11. Medicine glass Bed pan and Urine bottle 12. 13. Safety pins 14. Scissors 15. Anti septic creams ex. Savanna 16. Disinfectant egg: Delete 17.
Pain killers Ex: Aspirin Paraffin Gauze 18. 19. Bicarbonate of Soda 20. Cool In 21 . Calming lotion A housekeeper will, of course, only deal with immediate treatment or first aid and will leave special treatment or second aid to the doctor. The following are some of the possible emergencies or illness which could occur and the retirement and remedies given are first aid only. SHOCK: This may be caused through injury giving rise to pain through hemorrhage ( it is a serious bleeding inside a persons’ body) or through mental stimulus such as bad news, and the patient is pale, and complains of feeling cold and shivery.
The patient should be laid flat with all constricting clothing loosened , kept warm by covering with blanket and given nothing by mouth , except in the case of shock due to mental disgusts when hot, sweet tea may be given. FAINTING This may be caused as above, and the loss of blood from the head gives rise o perspiration and loss of consciousness. The patient should be laid flat and be prevented from being ‘crowded in ‘ , so that he gets plenty of air and be treated for shock. HEART ATTACK: This is due to a clot of blood in the heart and manifests itself by an acute pain in the chest breathlessness and feeling faint.
The patient should be propped (supported) up and on no account moved until the doctor or ambulance arrives. A stroke is associated with high blood pressure , and there may or may not be a loss of consciousness but there is usually some degree of paralysis on one side of the face and body. The patient should be treated for shock and a doctor to be called immediately. Concussion is caused by a blow on the head which may or may not render the patient unconscious. If on questioning later, there is any sign Of loss Of memory concerning the accident or the time preceding it, then concussion should be suspected.
DIABETES: It is a dieses of the pancreas ( it is an organ in our body that is situated behind your stomach. It produces insulin and substances that help your body digest food) ( Insulin is a substance that most people produce naturally in their body and which controls the level of sugar in their In diabetes he body produces insufficient insulin)which prevents the body from burning or oxidize sugar. Many diabetes are treated with insulin which has to be carefully balanced with the diet.
If insufficient food is eaten to balance the insulin , the patient start to perspire and become irritable and nervous. Most diabetes carry a diabetic card and sugar for such emergencies , for this condition be allowed to continue coma will result! The patient should be given two lumps of sugar or a piece of chocolate at the first sign of insulin shock , and if there is no reaction the doctor or the ambulance should be called at once. EPILEPTIC FITS: Epilepsy is a brain condition which causes a person to suddenly loose consciousness and some times to have fits.
The place where the patient has fall on should be cleared of obstacles so that he does not knock himself , and he should be prevented from biting his tongue ( and his tongue is prevented and suitable object being put between his teeth . The cloth to be loosened and the patient left where he is until he recovers. Convulsions are fits occurring in young children during teething . The child holds its breath and becomes rigid. ASTHMA: ( It is a lung condition which causes difficulty in breathing) A chronic asthmatic will have had attacks before and may have drugs prescribed to take during the attack.
If necessary doctor be called. POISONING: Poisoning may result from swallowing, inhaling or injecting poisonous substances. In most cases when poison has been taken by mouth the patient should be made to vomit by swallowing warm water with salt or mustard in it , and prevented from sleeping until a doctor /ambulance arrives. If a person is found unconscious and an empty bottle which contained sleeping tablets is found ambulance should be called at once and the bottle is needed for evidence. BURNS: Burns are caused by dry heat, hot fat or oil.