Nursing is the art and science of working with individuals, families, and communities to promote wellness of body, mind, and spirit. It is a dynamic, therapeutic and educational process that serves to meet the health needs Of the society . Nursing has a history as long as that Of human kind. Human beings have always faced the challenge of fostering health and caring for the sick. Those who were skilled in this area stood out and, in some cases, passed their skills along to others. (Pritchard (1973) described the early history of nursing using three images: the folk image, the religious image, and the renaissance image.
The Folk Image of Nursing was The Nurse as the Mother The nurse was generally a member of the family or, if not, then a member of the community who demonstrated a special skill in caring for others. Nursing in this perspective was seen largely as a feminine role an extension of mothering. Indeed, the word nursing itself may have been derived from the same root as the words nourish and nurture. This view of nursing was prevalent in the earliest historical records and is still present in primitive cultures. The Religious Image of Nursing: The Nurse as God’s Worker
In the Bible, a woman named Phoebe is identified as the first deaconess, a word that means servant or helper. Deaconess cared for widows, orphans, and the sick. Olympian, a woman of Constantinople, set up a hospital to care for the sick. In Rome, Marcella established a monastery for those in need of care. Bilabial, who was converted to Christianity by Marcella, established hospitals for the sick poor. In the middle Ages, the traditional role of the religious groups in caring for the ill was continued by various orders of monks and nuns. The Renaissance Image of Nursing was seeing The Nurse as
Servant The Renaissance saw the decline of monastic orders and the rise in individualism and materialism. There was a radical change from the image of the selfless nurse that had developed in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages. Care of the ill was delegated to servants and those unable to find any other means of support. The hospitals of this time were plagued by pestilence and filled with Bacteria so basically the wealthy were the only ones who could seek quality medical help. The three early images of the nurse were held simultaneously for hundreds Of years.
Then, in the 19th century, one woman changed the course of nursing: Florence Nightingale. Although born to wealth and a family well placed in Victorian English Society, Florence Nightingale had a firm belief in Christian ideals that made heeler disdainful of a life of luxury. She believed her true calling was to minister to the sick. In the early ages, much of the practice of medicine was integrated with religious practices. Before the development of modern nursing, women of nomadic tribes performed nursing duties, such as helping the very young, the old, and he sick, care-dwelling mothers practiced the nursing of their time.
Additionally, Nursing Techniques can be learned and implemented by almost anyone. When you start off in nursing you’ll learn about an essential you should usually do called nursing process which means is a tool or method for organizing and delivering care or a deliberate intellectual activity where by the practice of nursing is approached in an orderly systematic manner. It is a systematic problem solving approach to client care. It is a series of planned steps and actions directed toward meeting the need and solving problems of people there are three steps in the nursing process the assessment, diagnosis and planning . He assessment consists Of the systematic collection Of data to determine the patient’s health status and to identify any actual or potential health problems. In nursing assessment the best sources of information about the client are the client and the family. Previous client records and significant others also act as information sources. Data collected about a client generally fall into one of the two categories: objective or subjective Objective data include all the measurable and observable pieces of information about the client and his or her overall state of health.
The term objective means that only accurate measurements or clear descriptions are used. Subjective data consists the clients opinions, feelings about what is happening. Only the client can tell you that he/she is afraid or has pain. Some times the client can communicate through body language: gesture, facial expressions and body posture. To obtain subjective data you need sharp interviewing, listening, and observation skills. Second is diagnosis, which means the actual, or potential health problems that can be managed by independent nursing interventions.
Purposes of Diagnosis to serve the following purposes. Identifies nursing priorities Directs nursing interventions to meet the client’s high priority needs Provides a common language and forms a basis for communication and understanding between nursing professionals and health care team. Guides the formulation of expected outcomes for quality assurance requirements of third party payer. Provides a basis for evaluation to determine if nursing care was beneficial to the client and cost effective. Last but not least is the planning, which consists of goals,