Criminology social structure paper essay

Social structure theories indicate that neighborhoods of lower class individuals buffer from immense strain, stress, frustration, and a kind of disorganized chaos that creates crime (Encrusting, n. D While this theory definitely has some truths regarding resources and some people’s experiences, certain strains do not necessarily come from a person’s frustration with having the American Dream (Encrusting, n. D. ). But instead a concoction of strains such as frustrations about poverty, deviant values, subcultures, abuse, neglect, and homelessness (Encrusting, n. D. )..

In other words, there is likely more than one specific factor in play when considering how a person is influenced to commit a crime based on his or her interaction with a specific economic class. Although this seems like an impossible battle fought up hill, there are also cases when a person encounters these factors alone and decide to choose their own paths as opposed to a life of crime (Encrusting, n. D. ). Just because a person faces poverty, homelessness, etc, doesn’t mean they don’t have enough resilience through personal courage, values, or morals to make a choice of lawful actions (Encrusting, n. . ). There are many aspects of these theories that appear outdated. This outdated material is due to the many community initiatives promoting community and cultural involvement in the lower class neighborhoods (Encrusting, n. D. ). Immigrant communities disagree with the aforementioned portrayal. In the Latino community, especially, family and community means everything to them, yet they still have to leave despite thinking of everything (Encrusting, n. D. ).

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However, for the most part, theories do address factors in neighborhoods that need constant attention, like counter cultures, drug trafficking, and the choice to form gangs (Encrusting, n. D. . With that being said, there are also as many aspects countering some of these crime inspiring situations as there are situations that foster it (Encrusting, n. D. ). Prostitution Among Immigration Routes According to “Wisped” (201 5), “Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual relations in exchange for payment or some other benefit” (Prostitution).

For immigrant woman, prostitution is an abysmal reality that results in death or being trapped in a location due to contracting a sexually transmitted disease (SST). However, as abysmal as it may seem, it is accessory for these woman trying to escape their current situation that often includes sexual abuse, physical abuse, and poverty. These immigrant women do not necessarily want to engage in prostitution, but use their bodies as a method for repaying traffickers that help them illegally enter into another country.

There are also women who attempt to gain entry into another country on their own, and end up as prostitutes to earn money for basic survival and travel arrangements. According to University of Phoenix Prostitution along immigration routes video (2013) “We know that worldwide here is talk of the finalization of immigration, and 54% of immigrants throughout the world are women. ” For the United States, illegal immigration is becoming an epidemic with the majority of immigrants coming through the Senora Desert region of Mexico.

Moreover, the Senora Desert is notoriously known for a 30 mile stretch filled with nightclubs, brothels, and bars where female immigrants work as prostitutes to pay to pay their traffickers for entry into the United States (University of Phoenix, 2013). Yet a sad statistic exists, as many of these immigrant women will never set foot into the United States u to contracting a fatal SST, or be forced into slavery despite making enough money to pay their traffickers (University of Phoenix, 2013).

An estimated 460 illegal immigrants, men, women and children, died crossing the Senora Desert in 2005 alone, while attempting to gain entry into the United States (University of Phoenix, 2013). Primary Subject of the Video The primary subject of the prostitution of immigration routes video, is feminism and how traffickers are taking advantage of these women’s personal situation. Moreover, the video describes how females are forced to revive by selling their bodies for survival along these immigration routes (University of Phoenix, 2013).

Essentially, trafficking of humans is modern, day slavery that is also a criminal act and a direct violation of human rights that affects every country in the world. Human trafficking is the illegal transportation and exploitation of men, women and children for profit in a variety of capacities (University of Phoenix, 2013). In this video, the trafficking is initiated by coercion of a woman who is simply trying to survive while attempting to gain entry in the United States.

However, humans are also trafficked by use of fraud, blackmail, abduction and physical force. The video also touches on a town located 30 miles from the Arizona border called, Altar (University of Phoenix, 2013). Altar, for many immigrants is the last stop in Mexico for them as they become trapped by slavery or contract diseases like AIDS (University Of phoenix, 2013). The immigrants call their families in the united States excited to reunite with them, but usually never get that chance as they fall victim to human trafficking and become a statistic.

Moreover, even if an immigrant is forwarded an opportunity to cross the Sonora Desert, keep in mind that in 2005 alone, 460 immigrants died while attempting the journey (University of Phoenix, 2013). Social Issues The main social issue with the prostitution in immigration video is human trafficking and the exploitation of illegal aliens (University of Phoenix, 2013). There is a large and tenacious arrival of illegal aliens that fosters an environment of abuse and vulnerability. Each year there is an estimated 14,500 to 17,500 immigrants smuggled in to the United States each year (“Immigration Issues”, n. D. . Crime flourishes when the law cannot contain illegal actions, and since the federal government cannot seem to address the illegal alien issue the exploitation of immigrants runs ragged (“Immigration Issues”, n. D. ). Traffickers recruit immigrant women within or across countries illegally using deception, fraud, and force to exploit them economically and for profit. Women who are leaving their lives of poverty or looking for a better life are lured With lies and false promises to have better lives through better jobs, and then forced to live in brutal and inhumane conditions (“Immigration Issues”, old. Besides prostitution, Women are also used for commercial sex, live sex shows, sexual acts with animals, striping and pornography (“Immigration Issues”, n. D. ). Anybody can become a victim of trafficking, however illegal aliens are extremely vulnerable due to a number of reasons including lack of legal status and protections, limited language skills and employment options, poverty and immigration related debts, and social isolation. Policy Change The greatest challenge posed by any government for trafficking and policy change for prostitution rings is victim protection.

The TVA is a victim entered approach that addresses trafficking including anti-crime and human rights objectives (“Policy Approaches To Trafficking Persons”, 2007). Without protection for victims, efforts to address human trafficking crimes will be ineffective (“Policy Approaches To Trafficking Persons”, 2007). The Tap’s criteria ” for evaluating a government’s efforts to combat trafficking in persons include specific criteria for victim protection (“Policy Approaches To Trafficking Persons”, 2007).

According to “Policy Approaches To Trafficking Persons” (2007), “Whether the government of the country protects victims of ever forms of trafficking in persons and encourages their assistance in the investigation and prosecution of such trafficking, including provisions for legal alternatives to their removal to countries in which they would face retribution or hardship, and ensures that victims are not inappropriately incarcerated, fined, or otherwise penalized solely for unlawful acts as a direct result of being trafficked. (The Greatest Challenge: Victim Protection). Also according to “Policy Approaches To Trafficking Persons” (2007), Governments should proactively identify victims Of trafficking. Without victim identification, adequate protection is impossible. Government agencies should establish formal victim identification procedures to screen at-risk populations such as persons apprehended for violations of immigration laws, prostitution laws, and begging or labor laws.

Victims of trafficking should not be expected to identify themselves; proactive investigative techniques-such as interviews in safe and non-threatening environments with trained counselors and appropriate language services-should be used to identify possible trafficking victims (The Greatest Challenge: Victim Protection). Once identified, a suspected victim of trafficking should be afforded temporary care as a victim of a serious crime.

This could include shelter and counseling that allows a potential victim to recount his or her experience to trained social counselors and law enforcement personnel at a pace with minimal pressure (The Greatest Challenge: Victim Protection). Confirmed trafficking victims should not be punished for crimes that are a direct result of being trafficked-such as not holding proper immigration documents or violation of prostitution, labor, or begging statutes. Trafficking victims should not be detained in criminal attention facilities, except in extreme circumstances. They should be treated as victims (The Greatest Challenge: Victim Protection).

Confirmed trafficking victims should be encouraged to Cooperate with law enforcement authorities in the investigation of the crime committed against them. Furthermore, they should be encouraged to assist in the prosecution, if possible, of the persons that trafficked or exploited them (The Greatest Challenge: Victim Protection). Trafficking victims who are unwilling or unable to cooperate in a trafficking prosecution can be returned to their community of origin provided that this turn is accomplished in a responsible manner, with preparations made in advance for the victim’s safe return and reintegration.

However, a victim should be offered legal alternatives if going home would entail hardship or retribution (The Greatest Challenge: Victim Protection). The international community has two objectives they need to accomplish in the war against human trafficking. Governments needs the State to impose punishments on this serious crime, and the need for society to care for the victims of serious human rights abuse that strikes at their most basic freedoms (“Policy Approaches To Trafficking Persons”, 2007).

The united Nations TIP protocol, which supplements the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, directly supports both (“Policy Approaches To Trafficking Persons”, 2007). At the center of the united States Government’s anti- trafficking determinations is the human rights principle that victims of trafficking and slave-like practices must be protected from further trauma. That being said, other governments should provide effective access to justice for these victims.

They could provide assistance for reintegration into their old communities, or lend them a hand to fit into new communities to build a new life to forget their turbulent pasts, provide shelters, medical care, legal aid, psycho-social counseling (“Policy Approaches To Trafficking Persons”, 2007). This aggressive approach accomplishes a careful balance between security and society’s need for human rights to be restored to the victim (“Policy Approaches To Trafficking Persons”, 2007). Placing the needs of victims first of this monstrous crime assures them of the protection that they need so desperately.

Once that security assures the safety of those cities, many would volunteer to step forward as witnesses, telling their stories in a court of law and achieving justice. Justice not just for themselves, but for the countless others who did not make it out of their hopeless situation ultimately dying for trying to have a better life (“Policy Approaches To Trafficking Persons”, 2007). Everybody wants to eradicate slave like practices, so by assuring the safety of these victims would only benefit the state that wants to complete this objective.

The cooperation of victims cannot be bought or forced, however through the constant programs with assistance not related to performance in court, with victims assured of their rights will regain the confidence to stand up for themselves and speak up against the groups that made them prostitutes or worse (“Policy Approaches To Trafficking Persons”, 2007). Once this has been achieved, everybody wins, the state, the victim, and society as a victim finds his or her voice and an exploiter is rendered speechless as justice is handed down to the monsters responsible for their horrible experiences (“Policy Approaches To Trafficking Persons”, 2007).