Composite material essay

Papilla Tappet for giving us this splendid opportunity to select and work on this project and also providing facilities for successful completion of our seminar. Without her support, it was not possible to complete our seminar. We thank all the staff members, for their indispensable support, priceless suggestions and for most valuable time lent as and when required. We are also thankful to MIT Polymer Department for giving us this opportunity . We also thankful to our friends for this help in collecting and sharing their ideas with us.

Abstract This special issue will focus on the current state-of-the-art in the applications Of polymers in wars and medical. Polymers have now become widespread in their applications in weapons, life saving jackets, and in many medical applications and this issue will serve to summarize the field and describe the latest research results. Here we discuss the latest research in this area and/or review the state of the research in selected areas. The potential opportunities promised by nanotechnology for enabling advances in defense technologies are staggering.

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Although these opportunities are likely to be realized over a few decades, many advantages are currently being explored, particularly for defense applications. This review provides an insight into the capabilities offered by minicomputers which include smart materials, harder/lighter platforms, nevus fuel sources and storage as well as novel medical applications. It discusses polymer-based incompetent materials, nacelles fillers and provides examples of the actual and potential uses of incompetent materials in defense with racial examples. The use of polymers in medical devices is growing at a steady rate.

These materials are generally relatively cheap and versatile, qualities required in many bulk applications. In more specialized medical devices, polymeric components have been developed to meet challenging property and performance requirements. This review describes the process of developing polymeric products for medical applications from design requirements through to specific examples of medical devices and packaging. Topics covered in this review include a summary of the use of different polymers in deiced devices and an outline of the general considerations for polymers to be used in medical devices.

An overview of various biomedical applications of polymer-composite materials reported in the literature over the last 30 years is presented in this paper. For the benefit of the readers, general information regarding structure and function of tissues, types and purpose of implants/ medical devices, and various other materials used, are also briefly presented. Different types of polymer composite that are already in use or are investigated for various biomedical applications are presented. Specific advantages of using polymer-composite bimetallism in selected applications are also highlighted.

The paper also examines the critical issues and scientific challenges that require further research and development of polymer composite materials for their increased acceptance in the biomedical industry. Tables of figures SIR NO DESCRIPTION PAGE NO. RELATIVE IMPORTANT COST AND PERFORMANCE IN DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES 8 2 SPRAY APPLICATION OF HIGH SOLID EPOXY PRIMER FILLER AND PRIMER SURFACE 12 3 BULLET PROOF JACKETS AND HELMET 13 4 BULLET PROOF TIRES 14 5 TIRES IN SPACE 15 6 BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 19 7 ARTIFICIAL HEART PUMP DESIGN 1 8 SKIN ADHESIVES 22 9 ARTIFICIAL TEETH 23 10 CONTACT LENSES 24 11 ARTIFICIAL KIDNEY 25 Contents SIR NO.

INTRODUCTION OF POLYMER IN DEFENSE POLYMER MINICOMPUTERS MINICOMPUTERS DEFENSE APPLICATIONS OTHER APPLICATIONS DISADVANTAGES 16 CARBON AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO SEVERAL 17 INTRODUCTION OF POLYMER IN MEDICAL CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER IN MEDICAL 20 APPLICATION REFERENCES 26 Polymer in defense INTRODUCTION Polymers play a vital role in many defense and aerospace applications and there is huge amount of activity underway globally to produce new polymers and polymeric materials that can enhance these applications.

Composites are one such example where materials have revolutionized performance capabilities and, with the emergence of materialness, the world of composites is set to be further extended. Many new minicomputers have been developed, each with interesting and novel properties and new potential applications. The basic division of polymers into thermoplastics and thermoses helps define their areas of application. The latter group of materials includes phenol resins, polyesters and epoxy resins, all of which are used widely in composite materials when reinforced with stiff fibers such as fiberglass and Ramada.

Since crosslink stabilizes the thermosetting matrix of these materials, they have physical properties more similar to traditional engineering materials like steel. However, their very much lower densities compared with metals makes them ideal for lightweight structures. In addition, they suffer less from fatigue, so are ideal for safety-critical parts which are stressed regularly in service. Thermoplastics have relatively low tensile modulo, but also have low densities and properties such as transparency which make them ideal for consumer products and medical products.

They include polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon, acetate resin, polycarbonate and PET, all of which are widely used materials. Lassoers are polymers which have very low modulo and show reversible extension when strained, a valuable property for vibration absorption and damping. They may either be thermoplastic (in which case they are known as Thermoplastic lassoers) or crosslink, as in most conventional rubber products such as tires. Typical rubbers used conventionally include natural rubber, nitrite rubber, polypropylene, polycarbonate, styrene-butadiene and fluorinated rubbers such as Vitro. ] Definition The reinforcement of polymers using fillers, whether inorganic or organic, is common in the production of modern plastics. Polymeric minicomputers (Pans) represent a radical alternative to the conventional filled polymers or polymer blends. In contrast to conventional systems, where the reinforcement is of the order of microns, Pans are exemplified by discrete constituents of the order of a few manometers (The interface controls the degree of interaction between the filler and the polymer and thus controls the properties. As in conventional composites, the interracial region is the region beginning at the point in the fiber at which the properties differ from those of the bulk filler and ending at the point in the matrix at which the properties become equal to those of the bulk matrix. RELATIVE IMPORTANT COST AND PERFORMANCE IN DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES In materials technology, there are relatively few examples of minicomputers developed specifically for defense applications.

A) High Performance Fiber/Fabrics The first attempt to produce annotates resulted in very small quantities of angled annotates, which however has created interest in these materials as non-oriented. Further developments had led to the development of techniques for spinning annotates into fibers in a polymer matrix, which is of special interest for mechanical and electronic fabric applications. Such materials may find wide applications in defense as electrically conductive fabrics, sensors, electromagnetic shielding, microwave absorption, electrical energy storage (capacitors), actuators, and materials for micro JAVA.

B) Microwave Absorbers Minicomputers as microwave absorbers are receiving much attention. Unguent and Ditz have reported a method to synthesize polypropylene minicomputers containing iron oxides tin oxide, tungsten oxide and titanium dioxide. Payroll containing a dispersion of nonpolitical metal oxides was polymerases in situ and the magnetic properties reported-[8] The electrical conductivity and dielectric losses can be tuned by varying the concentration and orientation of the annotates additions.

Glasswork, have been awarded a patent in this area, covering a wide range of thermoplastic and thermosetting matrices containing oriented annotates. Only a few weight per cent of annotates need be added to the polymer to achieve useful repertories. These materials have wide applications in electrical energy storage (condensers) integrated into load-carrying structures for Vass, high strength Cents polymer fibers for energy absorption, electromagnetic shielding, etc. [9] C) Fire Retardation Polymers have poor fire resistance.

If ignited, most polymers will burn quickly, releasing large quantities of heat, toxic gases, and soot. Polymers containing a few weight per cent of nonpolitical clays have greatly improved fire resistance as reported. The presence of flake-like clay inappropriate Examples of applications include deduction of fire risk in enclosed spaces in vehicles, submarines, airplanes, and ships reduces the diffusion of polymer decomposition volatiles to the burning surface and reduces diffusion of air into the polymer.

Further, addition of clay inappropriate improves mechanical properties significantly. Similar improvements were noted in polypropylene/Cents minicomputers. High thermal conductivity of Cents might increase heat input into polymer and enhance rate of burning. Indestructible Paint Indestructible Paint are specialist manufacturers of engineered coatings for the aerospace and defense industries. Established in 1978 in Birmingham, UK, the company has seen a continued growth in all areas of high performance surface coatings across both industry areas.

Product range comprises the majority of high performance organic coating systems, including epoxy, silicone, polyurethane, polyploidy, and specific resin type blends, and inorganic metallic-ceramic and pure ceramic slurry coatings. Typical uses Of composites are monocle structures for aerospace and automobiles, as well as more mundane products like fishing rods and bicycles. The stealth bomber was the first all-composite aircraft, but many passenger aircraft like he Airbus and the Boeing 787 use an increasing proportion of composites in their fuselages.

The quite different physical properties of composites gives designers a much greater freedom in shaping parts, which is why composite products often look different to conventional products. On the other hand, some products such astride shafts, helicopter rotor blades, and propellers look identical to metal precursors owing to the basic functional needs of such components. With the aerospace and defense industries poised for growth in virtually every segment; the commercial, general aviation, military and space sectors re a ‘must watch’ area for businesses seeking new buss news and technology opportunities.

Accompanying this growth, polymers will play an increasing role, with, for example, a near doubling of the receptionist market being predicted by 2016. Polymers in Defense and Aerospace Applications will take an in depth look at how polymers are increasingly being used to meet the developing demands Of this industry in areas such as weight minimization, increased strength and enhanced affordability.

Both defense and aerospace are industries where the performance requirements of polymer -based trials are continually being pushed to the limits of what is possible in order to help achieve these goals, and where there is a constant demand for new and improved materials for a wide range of existing and new applications. This conference will cover all of the important polymer related areas specific to the defense and aerospace industries, from state-of-the-art to characterization, fabrication, technology development and many new and emerging applications.

Polymers in Defense & Aerospace Applications will feature presentations from key defense and aerospace industry experts, s well as from polymer manufacturers and those developing new polymer based materials, technologies and applications. [3] Composite Airframes Vehicles The airframe is manufactured from carbon fiber re-enforced epoxy composite, the components being laid up by hand in moulds before auto- calving. The rotor blades are manufactured from a carbon fiber epoxy pre- prep.

The condition of both components out of the mould can be varied, with both resin rich and resin weak areas at the surface. Initially it was the thought that much hand filling and sanding would be necessary, an obviously time oncoming and expensive process. But a new system was developed for the spray application of low VOCE (Volatile organic compound) , high solids epoxy primer-filler and primer-surface that would provide a smooth surface for further decoration/finishing with minimal sanding and localized hand filling .

For commercial applications, the majority of products supplied have been high gloss finishes in safety or livery colors, for example a bright red gloss for use on an air ambulance For military vehicles, there is a requirement for dead matt finishes with the necessary AIR properties, in a range of earth lords as camouflage for the army, and grey / blue colors for navy / airframe[4] SURFACE In bullet proof jackets & bullet proof Tires A) Bullet proof jackets Of all the different polymers produced during the twentieth century, the one that has probably saved the most lives is known by the trade-name of Several.

Its range of properties have set it apart as one of the most useful long-chain compounds yet developed Polynomial Several is also known as poly(p-phenyleneterephtalamide). It is a polynomial, as is the equally famous polymer known as Nylon. A polynomial has recurring nits joined by amide links which have a carbonyl group (C=O) and a amine group (N-H). In Several the repeating groups between the amide links are benzene rings, flat hexagonal rings of six carbons each of which is bonded to a hydrogen atom.

Perfect Fibers This structure makes this polymer form almost perfect fibers. This is for t-van. Or reasons. First, the chains are always held straight because the bulk of the benzene rings prevent the amide links rotating and forming kinks in the chain, like they do in other nylons. Second, the benzene rings stack on top of each other very neatly and are held together by hydrogen bonds between the amide links, forming very regular, strong fibers.

Liquid Crystal Although the polymer presented the possibility of very useful properties, for a long time there was a problem. The very properties which made it attractive also meant that it was totally unworkable; it would not melt and it did not dissolve in any solvents. Eventually, in 1965, DuPont research scientist, Stephanie Sleek, devised a way of producing the polymer in a liquid crystal solution.