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I do not consent to my Work Insert title of Assessment Item being stored, reproduced, annotated and communicated within the University secure online learning environment under any circumstances. Acknowledged by: Penn Huh above as an electronic signature) Date: 2/23/2015 (Type your name Orlando is currently two and a half years old who lives with his mother, father and grandparents in a house in the Sunny bank area which is known as the China Town in Brisbane. His parents are first generation of immigration in Australia.
They are both from mainland China and were international students in Sydney. His father is a mechanical engineer. His mother used to be an accountant, but she determined to become a housewife until Orlando goes to primary school when she found out she was pregnant. Comments and Monroe (1896) identified four grades of school system which are the mother school, the primary school, The Latin School and the university. Mother school takes place from birth to age six which is the period Orlando mother choose to be a full-time stay home mother, Comments values this stage a lot.
He encourages parents to take care of children’s health and safety and let them grow naturally and freely. Orlando grandparents flight from China to stay with them about once a year to visit their grandchild and help them with some family chores and babysitting. Orlando is the only child in the family, and his parents are the only child in their families as well. So Orlando is the first third generation child and has full attention of the family. Several observation techniques are used in composing this essay. This essay will identify developments in physical, social, emotion and cognition area.
Orlando is 87. CM tall and his weight is 12. 7 keg which is the average size. He was born in August 2012 through natural labor after a full term and normal pregnancy. Orlando mother craved for shrimp during her pregnancy and Orlando loves shrimp very much as well since he was sixteen months old. According to his parents, he developed normally through the infancy. Orlando is a healthy eater, he does not pick on food. However, he was choked a little bit by baby Boy Choc, a Chinese vegetable last week, and he refused to eat any green vegetables ever since.
According to his parents, Orlando shows a great interests in music, he loves to dance with the music and would even stop walking when he hears music on the street. Orlando loves to play with puzzles, through my observation in appendices A, Orlando has good control Of hand muscles and fingers, and he is doing well in developing fine motor and gross motor skills and hand-eye coordination (Aloha & Kickback, 2007). According to Piglet’s theory of cognitive development (1 984), Orlando is currently in the operational stage.
Comparing to seniority stage, children’s intellectual development increases rapidly in the operational stage. According to appendix B 1 . 1, Orlando thinks plastic cups are high heels because when put them on his feet, they make the same sound as walking in high heels, so in his thoughts, they are the same thing. This example reflects Piglet’s theory that in the operational stage, children are usually ego centric and experiencing the development of symbolism. Orlando would only insider things from his own point of view and assume everyone else share the same view as him.
Orlando does not have the concept of gender identity and behavior yet. Gender stereotyping of activities such as women wear high heels is well- established by the age of five (Beer, 2008). Bandeau and Walter (1963) believes that most of humans behaviors are learned from observation. Bandeau identified four types of role model that children prefer to imitate, children trend to imitate behaviors of their favorites people, in Orlando case, his mother. Orlando learning process was able to be observed (see appendix B 1 . 2).
Orlando went through the attention phase by staring at her mother’s action for two times and pays attention to the detail which is his mother grabbing the edge of the pellet. Then he goes through the retention phase and reproduction phase which is after he observed twice the behavior, he stored it in his memory and imitated role model’s behavior in his own action. After Orlando successfully fed the duck by imitating his mother, he went through the motivation phase which is he voluntarily tried to repeat the behavior he has learned.
Orlando mother encouraged him wrought the whole learning process, she tried to relax him and create a supportive environment. Pigged (1962) identified that the existing of play is caused by the uneven between early childhood behavior and mind development. Games are reflection of young children’s inner feelings and emotions. In the growing of children, they experience nature, social and their own world. Playing is the activity which provides children with those three experiences. Young children gain understanding of the world gradually through the interaction in playing and their roles in the world as well.
Orlando mother told me his favorite o used to be a squeaky duck, he loved to squeeze it with hand and feet to make the duck quack. In Page’s play theory, this type of play is called functional play. Functional play is usually formed by repetitively simple actions. It allows young children manipulate their body and action in order to experience the satisfaction Of consequences Of their action. Now Orlando favorite toy to play with is big-pieces animal puzzle, since children are obtained less and less new experiences and practices with functional play.
Orlando has moved on to symbolic play. The main characteristic of symbolic play is pretending. The car puzzle Orlando plays with are consist by 3 to 4 pieces. Orlando is able to identify the car by half-finished puzzle (see appendix C). He is manipulating the conceptual knowledge. When Orlando finished a puzzle and tried to start a new one, he asked himself which one is it, what is it and where is it, he is developing and practicing his language skill at the same time.
The word scaffolding is identified by Burner, Ross and Wood in 1976, its main concept is the development of children’s psychological development relies on the assistance of adults or peers with strong ability, and this type of assistance should build on children’s current cognitive system characteristics. Different from Piglet’s cognitive development theory, Bosky (1978) advocates the Zone of Proximal Development (ZAP). ZAP is the gap between individual’s actual problems solving level and their potential development level with the guidance and assist of adult.
ZAP is an active concept, children Of certain age’s potential development level transfers into the actual problem solving level under certain conditions, and the next stage has its own ZAP. In Bosky opinion, education possibilities are determined by students ZAP hat teaching should be ahead development. Orlando mom assisted him with demonstration and supports, it helps advance his cognitive development (see appendix B). Scaffolding reinforces that teacher, caregiver and parents play the role of supporter in family and school setting, like the usage of scaffolding when building the house.
Children need adults and peers’ support initially, though when their abilities developed, the support from the society should be diminish, children supposed to develop self-regulation and self- learning. Problem-based learning and problem-based instruction are encouraged to be applied in the education. Leonard Bloomfield, world famous linguist who led the development of structural linguistics once said that the greatest achievement of humans mental development is the language learning (1942). Pigged believes language ability has a strong association with the cognitive development.
Children are able to achieve that in just a few years is already remarkable, especially learn two languages like Orlando. Orlando grandparents do not speak or understand English, despite his parents are now frequently in English, Chinese is still the common language among the household. Orlando speaks fluently in Chinese and could speak and use some common English words that are commonly used by her parents (see appendix D). Skinner (1938) emphasizes that external learning motivation could affect individual’s learning progress and outcome in his Behaviorism Theory. Skinner believes young children learn the language by coping.
The observation of Orlando interaction between caregivers indicate that encouraging and supportive environment is provided. Almost every time when Orlando talks or repeat new words he heard from adult conversation, his caregivers would reply with costive and soft voice. According to the principle of positive reinforcement, Orlando feels comfortable when he’s communicating and learning new words, and he would love to repeat his actions as they are encouraged. Ireland’s grandparents talk with each other with accent, Orlando is able to repeat a few common sentence that his grandparents used with the same accent.
Orlando caregivers reactions when he speaks with accent are positive and they would praise him by words like ‘That is so smart of you”, it is also the practice of scaffolding theory. In relate to Bigotry’s culture theory 1978), language learning is a colonization behavior, he believed individual’s learning is influenced by surrounding environment. Cummins’ (1976) the resold theory identifies that some children would benefit from the bio linguistic while it might bring negative effect to their learning.
Cummins raises the point that in order to achieve efficiency in the second language learning, the development Of first language has to reach certain level. If not, it would be difficult for the learning of second language because the lack of solid foundation. Solid foundation of first language would intricate to second language learning. Orlando parents think highly of mother tongue, they believe language is more than a communication tool, it is a significant part of spiritual and cultural life. They believe it is the culture behind the language that is priceless.
Language learning development of children is a complicated cognitive process, the learning could not exist independently isolates from other cognitive abilities and environment (Skinner, 1957). Accordingly, language learning abilities and achievements can be stimulated through inspiration, persuasion and scenario setting. Conversely, the improvement Of language ability could furtherance the development of other cognition. Orlando has not started kindergarten yet, although Australia is an immigration country. Cultural diversity is among the classroom, however, social identity and ambiguous belong problems might still occurs.
It is significant for educators to accommodate, respect and appreciate the similarities and differences among the students’ cultures, communicate and build relationship with students and identify their strength and weakness and implement quality differentiated teaching. Apparent (1932) identified several forms of play which are unoccupied behavior, onlooker behavior, solitary play, parallel play, associate play and cooperative play. Both onlooker behavior, solitary play and parallel play are involved. Orlando prefers solitary and parallel play without any social interaction (see appendix E).
He also observes other children play Frisbee for a while. Orlando did not have any interaction with peers. According to Howe and Pigged (1983), from one to three years old, there are more frequent interaction and solid social relation with peers. Peer interaction usually has object as agency. At this stage, children are too young to join an activity through play, they join together because they have same activity object. Their interaction objects are not each other, but the object, the toy itself. Their relationship are unstable because the toy is what connect them together.
In Orlando case, he and other kids used to in a harmony relationship, but when the older kid tries to take his ball, the barrier occurs. Since the ego centric among the interaction, at this stage, children do not have the moral obligation about rules during the interaction. Children practice under their win rules, they do not understand or care about other’s thoughts or feelings. Hence, unmoral or behaviors which might sabotage the interaction might occur, such as fighting for toys. Friendship at this stage would disappear while interactions do not exist anymore.
Frontbencher (1979) emphasizes on individual’s development emerges from their interaction with the environment in his Ecological system theory. They initiative with each other directly or indirectly in the multi-level system in a complicated way. Four systems are Microsystems, Microsystems, ecosystem and macro system. Microsystems refers to individual face or interact with there directly. It includes individual’s experiences of activities, roles and social relationships, it is the most direct and frequent communication hence has the maximum influence power on individual.
Microsystems contains the family, school and neighbors etc. Microsystems refers to the indirect influence of parents’ career or interaction between neighbors and the family to children. Examples of ecosystem include education policies, local government law or policies relate to family. Although parents do not directly involve in the ecosystem, it still affect reachable resources family could have from the social welfare. Also, examples like mass media or television show which their content could affect children’s attitudes or behaviors.
Macro system refers to the culture, sub-culture and core values that the individual lives in. In China, patriarchal culture underlines that man should dedicate to career and see career as priority where women should see housekeep and child rearing as centre of life. Seal (1985) summarizes six raising expectations of mother. Mothers expect their children have competitive power, they have problem solving ability and become independent learner. Mothers also have expectations of children sites to and obey to elderly, that they are capable of creating harmony relationship with others and achieve academic success in school.
Orlando parents value Orlando development of moral character and respect elderly the most rather than another traditional value Of bring glory to the ancestors. Banding (1967) categories three types of parenting styles and add the fourth type in 1 971 , they are authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting, permissive parenting and neglectful parenting style. Asian parenting styles are usually described as controlling and restrictive (Chic, 1987). In Troubadour’s (1987) research, Asian students rated their parents higher on the authoritarian style.
Orlando grandparents are more permissive style which has high responsiveness and low demimondaines (see appendix 1 . 1). They have less rules for Orlando and have more tolerance with his unreasonable temper and behaviors. They have the same unconditional love to Orlando as his parents, but lack of requirement and discipline style. Orlando mother is the authoritative style which has high responsiveness and also high demimondaines. As documented in appendix B, during Orlando learning recess, his mother always encourages with words and uses love and support as reaction to his learning behaviors.
During the puzzle game, she provides stimulating and challenging environment for him (see appendix C). Sari (1984) identified two most common emotional display rules, which are cultural display rules and satisfy a need of the moment. Cultural display rules refers to express emotions under the Common social rules and convention, basically, it is proboscis. For example, boys should not cry. Satisfy a need of the moment basically is for self-protection. For example, hiding their emotion experiences in order to avoid being marked.
Amounts (2005) summarized six approaches that people use to adjust their emotion display base on the emotional display rules. They are amplification, De-amplification, naturalization, masking, qualification and unmodified expression. Orlando does not have much facial response, he display his emotion mostly through the body language, such as no instant expression like saying “ouch” or crying after he was bitten by the duck, turning his body against other kids when do not want to share the ball with them (see appendix B 1. 2 and appendix E).
Emotions of young children are primarily caused by cognition which stimulates by certain strong circumstances, they are lack of moral cognition (Lucky, 2010). Caregivers and especially role models’ public praise on children’s moral behaviors would let children understand moral behaviors is linked to positive outcome and pleasant emotions. Hence, they will develop the cognition of in order to achieve pleasantness, moral behaviors should be performed and they will behave morally to acquire pleasant emotions (Bandeau, Barreling, Capybara & Pastorally, 1996).
Skinner (1969) believes enforcement is the foundation of modeling children’s behaviors. Reinforcement has crucial importance in children’s development. In order to consolidate a certain good behaviors, reinforcement has to be made immediately after the behaviors, otherwise it will fade away. This suggest the importance Of promptly feedback in the teaching and learning process, parents and educators are required to observe children’s improvement acutely and perform the reinforcement in order to advance children’s positive behaviors. According to Fraud’s (1962) psychoanalytic theory, Orlando is evolving superego.
It is the initialization affects by social norms of morality, especially under parents’ decline. It includes children’s idealized self- image and conscience. Children have fear in adults’ punishment and have to accept and obey their rules and turn them into internal rules of their behaviors, and it forms the conscience of superego. In relating to Icebergs (1981) moral development theory, Orlando is in the pre-conceptual stage which is guided by self-interest, he would consider the behavior is wrong because he got punished after the behavior which hurt his self-interest.
Orlando was punished as a consequences of his behavior by authority figure, which is his mother, he would have fear and avoid the punishment by the authority figure by not behavior like that in the future (see appendix 1 . 1). Individual’s cognitive development has particular relevance to observational learning, children with considerable cognitive development are also good at observational learning (Bandeau, 1977). Supposing that educators could comprehend children’s cognitive development in the practice Of moral education, it is believed children’s observation ability will be increased.
In furtherance of children to observe and learn moral behaviors of role models better. In conclusion, this child study assists the depth understanding of theories in relation to early childhood development. Educators should give priority to children’s health, emotion, psychological and cognition development, it is necessary for educators to work closely with children’s family and cooperatively reaching for aims of protecting children’s mental health, assisting them to develop good habits, enriching their life experiences, enhancing their moral cognitions and their affiliation to the society.