There are few characteristics that could antagonize an abusive situation such as mental health issues, socio-economic status, history of abuse, personality traits, and the effect of substance abuse on each Fathom. “Mental health diagnoses for batterers range from obsessive-compulsive, paranoid, borderline personality, passive-aggressive, narcissistic, and anti-social” (Selling, 201 0, p. 245). Many times these issues can progressively get worse the longer it goes untreated. For instance, narcissism is a personality disorder which can be very dangerous and unpredictable. Patients with severe arctic’s personality disorder may present symptoms strikingly similar to those of borderline patients: general impulsively, severe chaos in relations with significant others, severe breakdown in their capacity for work and emotional intimacy, and Para-suicidal and self-mutilating behavior” (Greenberg & Yeoman’s, 2013, p. 14). “Victims stated that more than 40 percent of spousal offenders were under the influence of alcohol or drugs at the time of the incident” (Selling, 201 0, p. 250). Alcohol combined with a mental health issue can create a dangerous situation.
An alcoholic suffering from a paranoid resonantly disorder are suspicious, jealous, distrustful, and detach meet. They may exhibit several symptoms. Such as, “A strong tendency not to forgive real or imagined slights and insults. People with PDP nurture grudges for a long time. An angry and aggressive response in reply to imagined attacks by others. The counterattack for a perceived insult is often rapid. Suspicions, in the absence of any real evidence, that a spouse or sexual partner is not sexually faithful, resulting in such repeated questions as ‘Where have you been? “Whom did you see? ” etc. , and other types of jealous behavior” (Brannon, 2009, up. 2). Without proper recognition and treatment, this can turn into a bad situation for those involved. It is all too easy to ignore a bad situation for fear of making it worse. Socio-economic status can impact a relationship in a negative way if the stress is not dealt with in a positive manner. “Poverty increases risk through effects on conflict, women’s power, and male identity. Violence is used as a strategy in conflict” (Jayvees, 2002, up. ). When the income level is low, men can feel inadequate and can reflect those emotions onto those around them. It is easy to go after those that are convenient such as a spouse or partner. Money and finances can cause quite a bit of stress and when a man cannot control his income, he tries to control everything else around him, such as his wife or girlfriend. He can inflict fear and intimidation as well and attempt exhibit dominance towards people and pets by verbal or physical threats (Selling, 2010).
A marijuana user that is living in poverty can become an abusive situation. “Relationship conflict, including insults and psychological abuse, is further escalated by the use/ buses of marijuana in groups of offenders who have already experienced high levels of stress” (Selling, 201 0, p. 250). The high level of stress may be caused by the low amount of money coming into the home. Although marijuana is usually associated with calming effects, in an abusive person that may not always be the case and can have the opposite effect.
A person with a violent past can continue the cycle. The Intergenerational Transmission Theory is an example of a possible cause for repeating the same actions as the past generation. “Abusive behavior is handed down from generation to enervation as an appropriate was to deal with conflict: Violence begets violence” (Selling, 2010, p. 77). When a child is raised around abuse, he is taught that this is a normal way of life and therefore continues the abuse as he grows up.
A child will grow into an abusive adult because he never learned that this type of action is not acceptable and wrong. Many times addiction can also be a learned trait that is passed down from one generation to the next. Prescription medications are a highly increasing problem in the US. A person who is carrying on his family legacy of abuse and is on Approach may exacerbate the abusive tendencies while on medication. If a person trust the dosage administered, the risk of side effects can be great.
Approach can cause a number of different reactions such as restlessness and agitation. Anyone on Approach is also advised to avoid alcohol and alert a doctor is there is a family history or bi-polar or manic disorders (WebMD, 2005). This has the possibility of increasing the damage done in an abusive situation. “Hanson characterizes individual batterers as clinically assessed problematic individuals displaying poor impulse control, aggression, fear of intimacy, motional dependence, fear of abandonment, and impaired ego functioning’ (Selling, 201 0, p. 245).
Each of these personality traits on their own can be a cause for disaster but combine any few of them and it is chaos. Many of these characteristics can go hand-in-hand with a past trauma that may have never been dealt with. A man who has a fear of intimacy may feel that he will only get hurt if he allows anyone that close to him, added to aggression, he will push people away and may not be able to control his temper when doing so. A problematic personality trait combined with the use of illegal steroids is another possible violent situation in the home.
A man with aggression issues that is self-administering illegal steroids will lose control and take it out on someone else. Illegal steroids also known as anabolic steroids “are synthetically produced variants of the naturally occurring male hormone testosterone” (DEAD, 2004. up. 1 Steroids also have possible psychological problems that could arise such as, “mood swings (including manic-like symptoms leading to violence), impaired judgment (stemming from feelings of invincibility), depression, nervousness, extreme irritability, delusions, stylist, and aggression” (DEAD 2004, up. 7).
Any one of these side effects could create a violent situation, combined with an already hostile personality only makes things worse. Substance abuse is a devastating factor in intimate partner and domestic violence. “Aggression has also been linked with psychoactive drugs such as barbiturates, amphetamines, opiates, phenylalanine, cocaine, and alcohol-cocaine combinations (Selling, 201 0, p. 245). Substance abuse has a very significant role in intimate partner and domestic violence in men. An abusive personality, regardless of the cause, goes not require an added bonus of drugs or alcohol.