Chapters essay

Explain and evaluate Rene Descartes argument for knowledge including the r ole of skepticism, the evil demon, and god in resolving his doubts. Descanter’s believed he could doubt everything that could be doubted, and the e remainder was be the absolute certain. He utilized skepticism as a means to achieve certainty. To do but every proposition he utilized the dream and evil demon conjectures. It was questionable whether h e was dreaming, or was it actually realty.

By trying to prove himself awake, during the time in which he was actually dreaming. During the evil demon conjecture,he brought to question whether a demon w gashing to deceive at every turn; having bring about uncertainty in proposition what be found to be truth h or false. It is impossible to doubt your existence, because you must exist to simply question it. Descartes believed what he perceived clearly and distinctly is that God would be the cause for his hand to move freely, not his mind. As God is the divine coordinator.

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He disconnected d metaphysical through “what is”, and brought other philosophers to become divided about the pope r of reason in overcoming skepticism. 2) Explain and evaluate Thomas Hobbes view that all objects are material, include ins thoughts, feelings and ideas. Hobbes believed that all things are made up of material pieces, and that all chi anger reduces to motion i. E bodies in motion. He attempted to show “perception” where all other mental phenomena are derived , and how the perception reduces the matter in motion.

The things that are area I outside of us, are the motions by which they are caused. Adding that thinking was a sequence of m Emory or imagination. 3) Explain and evaluate John Locker’s Theory of Representative Realism and of PRI any and secondary qualities. Locke believed that all of our ideas come from experience. He notes that our minds begin as a blank slate, and as we progress through life gaining experience it begins to make its imprint. According to him, nothing lives in our minds that aren’t in our senses first.

He provided an analogy of an object that we visualize control over, that our sensory equipment provides an accurate pi sutures of as being the primary quality. The secondary quality would be the color, smell, and feel of t he object that exist within us the power to produce ideas of color and taste. Then he notes that the cool r and taste are subjective, and resides in us as a simple idea. To sum this all up, he explains we discern o objects consequentially by means of our ideas of them. 4) Explain and evaluate Benedicts De Spinning’s view the “God is all” (or everything rig).

Spinal believed that the knowledge of god can be possessed by all, and cool d be sought out without drawing conflict. To determine that accurate knowledge is the highest good, h e appeals to the mind. Taking in consideration that he was a pantheist, the god he was referring to c insisted of the SUm total f everything that is i. E nature. He brought out that a living being was a single unit of a substance, that could be originated as a thought or extension. The body is considered the ext ensign, and the mind is conceived as the thought.

He believed that although thought and extension a re not the only attributes of substance, they are the only ones we are aware of. 5) Explain and evaluate Benedicts De Spinning’s view that we are determined to be free in the context of the notion of free will. Spinal believed that the mind and body were one, and they viewed things FRR mom different perspectives. According to him there is no such thing as life after death, and that free will is a misleading impression of reality. In retrospect he notes that God and nature are the same. Everything g that exist is modified by God/ Nature.

Physical activity coincides with the minds activity, and some thoughts can be switched out for others. 6) Explain and evaluate Anne Convoy’s monism in light of the fact that she argue sees for 2 distinct substances. Conway believed there was a connection between the most material and spirit dual substances. She argued that all created substances depend on God’s decision to create them, ND that all creatures have an individual essence that it is common to all. She reported that both the men tall and physical properties are created by God, otherwise it stops being what it is.

In relation to God, she states he is perfect and therefore exist outside the dimension of time. Conway identifies God as the e eternal creator, because he makes creatures as a primary function of what he does. God is eternal. 7) Explain and evaluate the two versions of epiphenomenon’s: occasional a ND parallelism. Parallelism is defined as the way in which the immaterial mind interacts with t he material body, engendering that the body should be subject to physical law. The understanding g is that the mind isn’t the cause of the hand moving, but willingness instead.

The t;wow parallel events that t occur are a sense of mental happenings, and the other being a series that involves happenings to material things. Occasional is the combining of both mental and physical happenings that i s supported by God. The understanding is when you choose your hand to move, God is the cause of the e action. Desperate thought he was successful in instituting metaphysical dualism as being clearly established. He also Hough he had shown that the mind is free, as it is not in space nor does it m eve. What believe today metaphysical dualism, is common sense. ) Explain and evaluate Olivia Sawbuck De Manatee’s view on the connection Bette en mind and body. Antes believed that as the properties of the soul are not physical properties, as they cannot be located in a specific position. She explained that the connection between the mind an d body are linked by the brain. Antes stated the soul is what controls the actions of humans. Therefore e her explanation was that since there was an intimate connection between the soul and brain, then there was also a link between psychological and physical health as well as morality and medicine. ) Explain and evaluate George Berkeley view that “to be, is to be perceived”. According to Berkeley, what we know of the existence of the world around us is the result of what we can see, hear, and feel. If you are unable to see a physical Object, then it does NT exist. Therefore the physical world only exist while it is perceived by the mind. He wrote that ideas are docile, and spirits are lively that cause the idea. God he states is eternal, and causes many of the ideas of humans. Explain and evaluate Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz view of monads.

Leibniz atoms are called monads, which are indivisible units of force, energy y, or activity. He believed that monads were nonphysical, and often referred to them as souls while distinguishing them from the ordinary sense. His metaphysical system followed some basic prince piles. One of which was the principle of the identity. According to this principle, if two things have Eden tactical possessions then they are identical to one another. Another noted principle is the principle of s efficient reason, which explains why things are the way they are and not another way.