Thus putting more pressure on parents and children and “contaminating children’s experience of childhood” (peg) Furred (2001) believes that media sources such as parenting magazines are a main source of causing a perceived ‘crisis in childhood’ and that this dead of the family in crisis is having a “destabilize impact on parents”. Parental fear for their child’s safety is out of proportion to the risks posed.
Furred (2001) believes the “Breakdown in adult solidarity/’ (cited in The Open University,EYE 2, chapter 1 peg) where adults no longer regard themselves as having a duty of care to all children and generally distrust all other adults are having their insecurities exploited by children who exercise this power for their own needs… Furred summarizes that parenting practices are encouraged by the culture of the time. ECMA- Every Child Matters (2004) green paper prompted by the death of Victoria Climb. Joined up services’ led onto The Children’s Act (2004) 5 aims; be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being. Cunningham (1999) “process of civilization creates greater distance between children and adults” (cited in the Open university, 2013, EYE 2, Chapter 1 peg. 13) childhood seen as a separate state requiring special status. Children were seen as an asset to the state (does this now link into the FEES by making a positive nutrition and achieving economic well-being? Cunningham suggests that major changes by governments such as compulsory schooling and reductions in infant mortality rates were accompanied by adult views on childhood. “The transition from valuing children for economic reasons and their ability to contribute to the family income to valuing children for emotional reasons” (Cited in The Open University, 2013, EYE 2, chapter 1 peg. 1 3) was one of the most important changes to have occurred in the history of childhood. Overweight children now are a concern, BAM (British Medical Association) beating whether overweight children should be regarded as neglect?
How does this coincide with underweight children of the past? Second half of the 20th century, children began to have ‘rights’, the child-rearing process then became a matter of negotiation between child and parent and this process is monitored by the state and other agencies. Cunningham (1999) argues that tensions arise in the struggle between the child that has rights and the romanticism ideal that a child has the right to be a child. Cohen (1973) Moods and Rockers- moral panic the media was instrumental in portraying young people as ‘folk devils’ and generating moral panic among its readers.
Art Of symbolic acts of deviance through inflated media reports that exaggerate and distort the threat posed. Person’s (1983) study named ‘hooligan’ suggests that every 20 year cycle there is moral panic about youth; it just re-emerges in a newly configured form visited by the next generation of youth. Barker (1989) themes are repeated every time a new cultural form comes along, such as video nasty, teenage magazines and social networking sites. Both Pearson and Barker comment on collectively constructed and media enervated moral panics that rest upon fear of change and demands of the past.
Moral panics can feed the anxiety about change and loss. The idea of childhood in crisis can be understood as a “moral panic that can be seen as a cyclical concern rather than a new phenomenon” (The Open University, IEEE, chapter 1, page) Late modernity Banana ‘who am I’ late modern social theory- emergence of a new relationship between the individual and the social. Giddiness argues that self- identity becomes a reflexive project. Places the onus upon individuals to take responsibility for producing and maintaining their own biographies.
Banyan’s analysis of consumerism as a “form of control that seduces individuals with offers of a ‘fantasy community’ of freedom and security’ (cited in The Open University, 2013, IEEE chapter 1, page) Beck (1992) minority worlds have been reshaped by a process of individualistic marked by three features. Dish- embedding- this refers to the individuals break of traditional ties of family and locality. Loss of traditional security; – produced by the demise of traditional values associated with the past. Re-embedding; -indicates the emergence of a new mood found in the creation of remained forms of social commitment.
The modern nuclear family has superseded the extended family of the past. Modern family is restructured can now include work colleagues, friends ( surrogate family) Jeans (1996) “concerns for childhood can be seen as a reflection of broader (adult) concerns for identity and security in changing times” (cited in The Open University, 201 3, IEEE, chapter 1 peg. 19). The child becomes the anchor for the couple (it stabilizes a relationship) permanency and commitment. ‘pester power children are tainted by the consumer culture, parents struggle to give their children all hey want.
Alison Clarke(2007) in children’s birthday parties suggests that parents use their child’s party to ‘out’ the family to show off their parenting practices, values and aspirations. Often marked by social class. Abandon- uses science and technology by offering scans at a price to offer the parents to be security in insecure times. Abandon appear to blend Romanticism with advanced technology to suggest that scans can offer ‘bonding’ reassurance and well-being of the unborn baby to the parents. Yardman – ‘Buy a better baby’ suggests that changes in the way a parent Ares for their child is informed by the market and consumer practice.
Balance the cost to the environment of disposable nappies by seeing it as saving on water, detergent and electricity. Disposable nappies are more convenient and the majority of the minority world uses them. In 1 992 billion disposable nappies were sold and then disposed off, often into landfill sites in the UK alone. Today 5 million trees are felled to supply the UK market with disposable nappies (Source quoted, The Open University 2013, IEEE chapter 1 peg. 48) Parenthood today is about consumerism, “there is everything yet thing” says Juliet Solomon (cited in The Open University, 201 3, IEEE, chapter 1, peg. 7) when describing a child in a room full of toys and saying there is nothing to play with. Postponement of potty trainer has seen a rise in the sale of larger sized nappies which is also adding to the global waste disposal problem. Gina Ford, Mary Beard and Spook all offered parents advise on child-rearing often with differing opinions. Summary of chapter 1 , childhood in crisis; Memories of childhood can be evocative and powerful and may raise a range of emotions that have a bearing on how we think childhood should be.
The idea that childhood is in crisis is developed across a range of sites; media texts, cultural commentary and policy documents. Concerns over children’s happiness and well-being have been expressed in policy documents commissioned by the I-J government. A historical perspective can be instructive in understanding how concerns about childhood are conceptualized and given meaning. Cultural studies, approaches and late- modern social theory offer different perspectives for understanding the idea of childhood in crisis. Contemporary meanings of childhood are shaped by the links bet”/en the past and the present.