Brain drain essay

This article is about the emigration term. For other uses, see Brain drain (disambiguation). This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This article may require copy editing for article structure somewhat convoluted. (October 201 3) This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. October 2013) Globalization Cultural Democratic Economic Workforce Historical Outline Portal Studies Terms Category Commons Human capital flight (also known as brain drain) refers to the departure or emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge from organizations, industries, and geographical regions. It is common in developing nations, particularly in many former African thespians nations of the and in centralized economies such as the former East Germany and the Soviet Union. China and India have recently been discovered to be at the top of the list of countries suffering brain drain.

Contents 1 Types 2 Origins and uses 3 Historical examples 3. 1 Napoleonic academy philosophers move 3. 2 Spanish expulsion of Jews and Moors 3. 3 Houghton exodus from France (17th century) 3. 4 Antiterrorism in pre-wall Europe (1933-1943) 3. 5 Eastern Bloc brain drain crisis (1922-1961) By region 4. 1 Europe 4. 2 Sub-Sahara Africa 4. 3 Western Asia 4. 4 Middle East 4. 5 Asia Pacific 4. 6 South Asia 4. 7 Eastern Asia 4. 8 Australia 4. 9 North America 4. 10 Latin America 4. 11 Caribbean 5 Preventive measures 5. 1 Brain circulation 6 The advantages of the brain drain 7 Negative consequences of brain drain 7. Impact on the health systems of developing countries 8 The utility of the brain drain 9 See also 10 References 10. 1 Notes 10. 2 Bibliography 11 External links Types[edit] There are several types of brain drain: Organizational: The flight of talented, creative, and highly trained employees room large corporations-”e. G. Yahoo[3] and Microsoft[4]-” that occurs when employees perceive the direction and leadership of the company to be unstable or stagnant, and thus, unable to keep up with their personal and professional ambitions.

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Geographical: The flight of highly trained individuals and college graduates from their area of residence, for instance, those migrating from the mid-western United States to the coastal states and large metropolises. [5] Industrial: The movement of traditionally skilled workers from one sector of an industry to another. For example, jobs in the united States and other governments, also known as the public sector, have experienced significant generational brain drain as tenured boomer generation employees retire.

Heightened competition for talent from the private sector and budgetary constraints have made it increasingly difficult to attract replacements for these retirees. [6] As with other human migration, the social environment is considered to be a key reason for this population shift. In source countries, lack of opportunities, political instability or oppression, economic depression, health risks and more contribute to brain drain, whereas host countries usually offer rich opportunities, political stability and freedom, a developed economy and better living conditions that attract talent.

At the individual level, family influences (relatives living overseas, for example), as well as personal preferences, career ambitions and other motivating factors can be considered. Origins and uses[edit] The term “brain drain” was coined by the Royal Society to describe the emigration of “scientists and technologists” to North America from post- war Europe. [7] Another source indicates that this term was first used in the

United Kingdom to describe the influx of Indian scientists and engineers-[8] The converse phenomenon is “brain gain”, which occurs when there is a large-scale immigration of technically qualified persons. There are also other relevant phrases, “brain circulation” and “brain waste”. Although the term originally referred to technology workers leaving a nation, the meaning has broadened into “the departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another, usually for better pay or living conditions” . 19] Historical examples[edit] Napoleonic academy philosophers move[edit]

After Justinian closed the Platonic Academy in AD 529, according to the historian Gatchis, its remaining members sought protection from the Assassin ruler, Shoran l, carrying with them precious scrolls of literature, philosophy, and to a lesser degree, science. After the peace treaty between the Persian and the Byzantine empires in 532 guaranteed their personal security, some members of this group found sanctuary in the Pagan stronghold of Harlan, near Odessa. One of the last leading figures of this group was Simplistic, a pupil of Damascus, the last head of the Athenian school.

The students of an academy-in-exile may have survived into the ninth century, long enough to facilitate the Arabic revival of the Manipulations commentary tradition in Baghdad. [10] Spanish expulsion of Jews and Moors[edit] After the end of the Catholic reconstructs of Spain, the Catholic Monarchs pursued a religiously uniform kingdom. Jews were expelled from the country in 1492. As they dominated financial services in the country, their expulsion was instrumental in causing future economic problems, for example the need for foreign bankers such as the Bigger family and others from Genoa.

On January 7, 1492, the King ordered the expulsion of all the Jews from Spain -” from the kingdoms of Castle, Catalonia, Argon, Galatia, Majorca, Minor, the Basque provinces, the islands of Sardinia and Sicily, and the Kingdom of Valiance. Before that, the Queen had also expelled them from the Kingdom of Andalusia. [11] The war against Turks and North African Moors affected internal policy in the uprising of the Lapboards (1568-1571) and motivated the expulsion of the Morocco’s in 1609. Despite being a minority group, they were a key part Of the farming sector and trained artisans.

Their departure contributed to economic decline in some regions of Spain. This way, the conservative aristocracy increased its power over economically developed provinces. Houghton exodus from France (17th In 1 685, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Antes and declared Protestantism to be illegal in the Edict of Fontainebleau. After this, many Hugeness (estimates range from 200,000 to fled to surrounding Protestant countries: England, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark and Prussia -” whose Calvinist great elector, Frederick William, welcomed them to help rebuild his war-ravaged and under-populated country.

Many went to the Dutch colony at the Cape (South Africa), where they were instrumental in establishing a wine industry. [13] At least 1 0,000 went to Ireland, where they were assimilated into the Protestant minority during the plantations. Many Hugeness and their descendants prospered. Henry Baggage De Valuable fled France and settled in the Netherlands, where he became an influential writer and historian-Able Borer, another noted writer, settled in London and became a tutor to the British Royal Family. Henry Foreordained, the descendant of Houghton settlers in England, founded the modern paper industry.

Augustan Courtyard fled to England, settling in Essex and established a dynasty that founded the British silk industry. Noted Swiss interchangeability Cramer was born in Geneva to Houghton refugees. Sir John Hobble, the first Governor of the Bank of England, was born into a Houghton family in London. Isaac Barr, the son of Houghton settlers in Ireland, became an influential British soldier and politician. Gustavo and Peter Carl Faberge, the descendants of Houghton refugees, founded the world famous Faberge company in Russia, maker of the famous Faberge eggs.

The exodus of Hugeness from France created a brain drain, as Hugeness accounted for a disproportionate number of entrepreneurial, artisan, and technical occupations in the country. The loss of this technical expertise was a blow from which the kingdom did not fully recover for many years. [citation needed] Antimissile in pre-WI Europe (1933-1 943)[edit] Antiseptic feelings and laws in Europe through the asses and asses, culminating in the Holocaust, caused an exodus of intelligentsia.

Notable examples are: Albert Einstein (emigrated permanently to the United States in 1933) Sigmund Freud (finally decided to emigrate permanently with his wife ND daughter to London, England, in 1 938, two months after the Announces) Enrich Fermi (1 938; though he was not Jewish himself, his wife, Laura, was) Nielsen Boor (1943; his mother was Jewish) Theodore von Karma John von Neumann Besides Jews, Nazi persecution extended to liberals and socialists in Germany, further contributing to emigration. Refugees in New York founded the University in Exile.

Debauches, perhaps the most important arts and design school of the 20th century, was forced to close down during the Nazi regime because of their liberal and socialist leanings, which the Nazis considered degenerate. Citation needed] The school had already been shut down in Whimper because of its political stance, but moved to Odessa prior to the closing. Following this abandonment, two of the three pioneers of modern architecture, Miss Van Deer Roe and Walter Groping, left Germany for America (while El Couriers stayed in France).

They introduced the European Modern movement to the American public and fostered the international style in architecture and design,[citation needed] helping to transform design education at American universities and influencing later architects. [citation needed] Eastern Bloc brain drain crisis (1922-1961 Berlin Wall 1975 Main articles: Eastern Bloc emigration and defection and Eastern Bloc By 1922, the Soviet Union had issued restrictions making emigration of its citizens to other countries almost impossible. 1 4] Soviet Preliminaries Khrushchev later stated, “We Were scared, really scared. We Were afraid the thaw might unleash a flood, which we wouldn’t be able to control and which could drown us. How could it drown us? It could have overflowed the banks of the Soviet riverbed and formed a tidal wave which would have washed away all the barriers and retaining walls of our society. “[1 5] After Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe at the end of World War II, the majority of those living in the newly acquired areas of the Eastern Bloc aspired to independence and wanted the Soviets to leave. 1 6] By the early 1 sass, the approach of the Soviet Union to restricting emigration was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc, including East Germany. [1 7] Even after the closing of the Inner German border officially in 1952,[18] the border between the sectors of East Berlin and West Berlin remained considerably more accessible than the rest of the border because it was administered by all four occupying powers. 19] The Berlin sector border was essentially a “loophole” through which East Bloc citizens could still emigrate. [18] The 3. 5 million East Germans, called Republic;chatting, who had left by 1961 totaled approximately 20% of the entire East German population. [20] The emigrants tended to be young and well-educated, leading to the brain drain feared by officials in East Germany. 16] Yuri Android, then the CUPS director of Relations with Communist and Workers’ Parties of Socialist Countries, decided on 28 August 1 958 to write an urgent letter to the Central Committee bout the 50% increase in the number of East German intelligentsia among the refugees-[21] Android reported that, while the East German leadership stated that they were leaving for economic reasons, testimony from refugees indicated that the reasons were more political than material-[21] He stated, “the flight of the intelligentsia has reached a particularly critical phase. [21] The direct cost of labor force losses has been estimated at $7 billion to $9 billion, with East German party leader Walter Albrecht later claiming that West Germany owed him $17 billion in compensation, including operations as well as labor force losses. [20] In addition, the drain of East Germany’s young population potentially cost it over 22. 5 billion marks in lost educational investment. [22] In August 1961 , East Germany erected a barbed- wire barrier that would eventually be expanded by construction into the Berlin Wall, effectively closing the loophole. 23] By region [edit] Europe[edit] Brain drain phenomena in Europe fall into two distinct trends. The first is an outflow of highly qualified scientists from ‘Western Europe’ mostly to the United States. [24] The second is a migration of skilled workers from Central’ and ‘Southeastern Europe’ into ‘Western Europe’, within the EX.. [J While in some countries the trend may be certain Southeast European countries continue to suffer from extremely high rates of brain drain. 28] The European union has noted a net loss of highly skilled workers and introduced blue card” policy – much like the American green card -” which “seeks to draw an additional 20 million workers from Asia, Africa and Latin America in the next two decades” . [29] Although the EX. Recognizes a need for extensive immigration to mitigate the effects of an aging nationalist political parties have gained support in many European countries by calling for stronger laws restricting immigration.

CO] Immigrants are perceived as a burden on the state and cause of social problems like increased crime rates and major cultural differences. [32] Western Europe[edit] In 2006, over 250,000 Europeans emigrated to the Ignited States Australia Canada and New Zealand (30,262). [36] Germany alone saw 1 55,290 people leave the county (though mostly to destinations within Europe). This is the highest rate Of worker emigration since reunification, and was equal to the rate in the aftermath of World War 11. [37] Portugal is suffering the largest drain in

Western Europe. The country has lost 19. 5% of its qualified population and is struggling to absorb sufficient skilled immigrants to compensate for losses to Australia, Canada, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. [38] Central and Eastern Central and Eastern European countries have expressed concerns about extensive migration of skilled laborers to Ireland and the United Kingdom. Lithuania, for example, has lost about 1 00,000 citizens since 2003, many of them young and well-educated, to emigration to Ireland in particular . Citation needed] (Ireland itself used to suffer serious brain drain to America, Britain and Canada before the Celtic Tiger economic programmer. ) A similar phenomenon occurred in Poland after its entry into the European union. In the first year of its EX. Membership, 100,000 Poles registered to work in England, joining an estimated 750,000 residents of Polish descent. [39] Research conducted by BOOK Bank Polloi, Pollard’s largest retail bank, shows that 63% of Polish immigrants to the UK were aged between 24 and 35, with 40% possessing a university degree. 40] However, with the rapid growth of salaries in Poland, its booming economy, the strong value of he z oy, and decreasing unemployment (which fell from 14. 2% in May 2006 to 8% in March 2008141]), the flight of polish workers slowed. [42] In 2008 and early 2009 people who came back outnumbered those leaving the country. The exodus is likely to continue, however. [43] Southeastern Europe[edit] The rapid but small-scale departure of highly skilled workers from Southeastern Europe has caused concern about those nations developing towards inclusion in the European Union. 44] This has sparked programmer to curb the outflow by encouraging skilled technicians and scientists to remain in the region to work on international projects. 45] Albania is also one of the countries that have experienced brain drain from the fall of communist regime. In 1 991, people started emigrating to the closest countries, Italy and Greece, and with the passing of years began going farther, to the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.

In the last 1 0 years, educated people and professionals have been leaving the country and going to other countries where they feel they can have better possibilities for better and secure lives. This is a concern for Albania, as it is losing its skilled-workers and professionals. Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain[edit] Many citizens of the countries most stricken by the economic crisis in Europe have emigrated, many of them to Australia, Brazil, Angola and Turkey[edit] In the 1 9605, many skilled and educated people emigrated from Turkey, including many doctors and engineers.

This emigration wave is believed to have been triggered by political instability, including the 1960 military coup. In later decades, into the asses, many Turkish professionals emigrated, and students studying overseas chose to remain abroad, mainly due to better economic opportunities. This brain drain was given national media attention, ND in 2000, the government formed a task force to investigate the brain drain problem. [48] However, in 201 0 Turkish financial minister Meet Similes said that Turkey’s GAP would rise sharply by 2050, predicting it would reach US$5-6 trillion. 49] United Kingdom[edit] There are a considerable number of people leaving the United Kingdom for other countries, especially Australia and the United States-[50] In the 20005, some 3. 5 million people emigrated from the JACK. Most of this emigration was to seek work in a more favorable economic climate. Many young university graduates are among those leaving, which has caused this phenomenon to e labeled the “talent drain”. 51] Sub-Sahara Africa[edit] Countries in Sub-Sahara Africa have lost a tremendous amount Of their educated and skilled populations as a result of emigration to more developed countries, which has harmed the ability of such nations to get out of poverty. Conservatively speaking, “Brain drain has cost the African continent over $4 billion in the employment of 150,000 expatriate professionals Nigeria, Kenya, and Ethiopia are believed to be the most affected. According to the United Nations Development Programmer, Ethiopia lost 75% of its skilled workforce between 1 980 and 1 991.

In particular, the country produces many excellent doctors, but there are more Ethiopians doctors in Chicago than there are in Ethiopia. [53] South African President Taboo Ember said in his 1998 African Renaissance’ speech: “In our world in which the generation of new knowledge and its application to change the human condition is the engine which moves human society further away from barbarism, do we not have need to recall Africans hundreds of thousands of intellectuals back from their places of emigration in Western Europe and North America, to rejoin those who remain still within our shores! Am of the day when these, the African mathematicians and computer specialists in Washington and New York, the African physicists, engineers, doctors, business managers and economists, will return from London and Manchester and Paris and Brussels to add to the African pool Of brain power, to enquire into and find solutions to Africans problems and challenges, to open the African door to the world of knowledge, to elevate Africans place within the universe of research the information of new knowledge, education and information. Bureaucratic is a joint initiative by NEPAL and he Commonwealth Business Council to recruit professional expatriate Africans to take employment back in Africa after working overseas. [54] In response to growing debate over brain drain of health care professionals, especially from lower income countries to some higher income countries, in 201 0 the World Health Organization adopted the Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel, a policy framework for all countries for the ethical international recruitment of doctors, nurses and other health professionals.

The African brain drain has begun to reverse itself u to rapid growth and development in many African nations, and the emergence of an African middle class. Between 2001 and 201 0, six of the world’s ten fastest-growing economies were in Africa, and between 2011 and 201 5, Africans economic growth is expected to outpace Sais’s.

This, together with increased development, introduction of technologies such as fast Internet and mobile phones, a better-educated population, and the environment for business driven by new tech start-up companies, has resulted in many expatriates from Africa returning to their home countries, and more Africans staying at home to work. 55] Ghana[edit] The trend for young doctors and nurses to seek higher salaries and better working conditions, mainly in higher income countries of the West, is having serious impacts on the health care sector in Ghana.

Ghana currently has about 3,600 doctors-”one for every 6,700 inhabitants. This compares with one doctor per 430 people in the United States. [56]Many of the country’s trained doctors and nurses leave to work in countries such as Britain, the United States, Jamaica and Canada, in what many refer to as the brain drain. It is estimated that up to 68% of the country’s trained medical staff left teen 1993 and 2000, and according to Shania’s official statistics institute, in the period 1999 to 2004, 448 doctors, or 54% of those trained in the period, left to work abroad. 57] South Africa[edit] Main article: Economy of South Africa Brain drain Along with many African nations, South Africa has been experiencing a “brain drain” in the past 20 years. This is believed to be potentially damaging for the regional economy,[58]and is almost certainly detrimental to the wellbeing of the region’s poor majority, desperately reliant on the health care infrastructure because of the HAPLOIDS epidemic. [59] The skills drain in

South Africa tends to reflect racial contours exacerbated by Black Economic Empowerment policies, and has thus resulted in large White South African communities abroad. [60] The problem is further highlighted by South Africans request in 2001 of Canada to stop recruiting its doctors and other highly skilled medical personnel. [61] For the medical sector, the loss Of return from investment for all doctors emigrating from South Africa is $1. 41 ban. The benefit to destination countries is huge: SO. Ban for thinned Kingdom alone, without compensation. 62] More recently, in a case of reverse brain drain a et 359,000 highly-skilled South Africans have returned to South Africa from foreign work assignments over a five year period from 2008 to 2013. This was catalysts by the global financial crisis of 2007-8 and perceptions of a higher quality of life in South Africa relative to the countries to which they had first emigrated. It is estimated that around 37% of those returning are professionals such as lawyers, doctors, engineers and accountants. 63] Western Asia[edit] Iraq[edit] During the Iraq War, especially during the early years, the lack of basic services and security’ fed an outflow of professionals from Iraq that began ender Sad Hussein, under whose rule four million Iraqis are believed to have left the country. [64] In particular, the exodus was fed by the violence that plagued Iraq, which by 2006 had seen 89 university professors and senior lecturers killed. [65] Iran[edit] Main article: Brain drain in Iran In 2006, the International Monetary Fund ranked Iran highest in brain drain among 90 measured countries. 66] In the early 1 sass, more than 1 50,000 Iranians emigrated, and an estimated 25% of Iranians with post-secondary education were residing in developed countries of the COED In 2009, he International Monetary Fund reported that 150,000-180,000 Iranians emigrate annually, with up to 62% Of Iran’s academic elite having emigrated, and that the yearly exodus is equivalent to an annual capital loss of $50 billion brain drain is thought to be due to a poor job market and strict social codes imposed by the Middle East[edit] Israel[edit] Main article: Hayride Israel has experienced varying levels of emigration throughout its history, with the majority of Israeli expatriates moving to the United States. Currently, some 330,000 native-born Israelis (including 230,000 Israeli Jews) are estimated to be living abroad, while the number of immigrants to Israel who later left is unclear. According to public opinion polls, the main motives for leaving Israel have not been the political and security situation, but include desire for higher living standards, pursuit of work opportunities and/or professional advancement, and higher education.

Since those leaving are on average more educated than those who remain in Israel, the term “brain drain” has been applied to this emigration. Many Israelis with degrees in scientific or engineering fields have emigrated abroad, largely due to lack of bob opportunities. From Israel’s establishment in May 1 948 to December 2006, about 400,000 doctors and academics left Israel. In 2009, Israel’s Council for Higher Education informed the Meekness’s Education Committee that 25% of Israel’s academics were living overseas, and that Israel had the highest brain drain rate in the world. However, an COED estimate put the highly educated Israeli emigrant rate at 5. Per 1 ,OHO highly educated Israelis, meaning that Israel actually retains more of its highly educated population than many other developed countries. In addition, the majority of Israelis who migrate eventually return after extended periods abroad. In 2007, the Israeli government began a programmer to encourage Israelis living abroad to return; since then, the number of returning Israelis has doubled, and in 2010, Israeli expatriates, including academics, researchers, technical professionals, and business managers, began returning in record numbers. Israel launched additional programmer to open new opportunities in scientific fields to encourage Israeli scientists and researchers living abroad to return home.

These programmer have since succeeded in luring many Israeli scientists jack Arab world[edit] By 2010, the Arab countries were experiencing a brain drain, according to reports from the United Nations and Arab League. About one million Arab experts and specialists were living in developed countries, and the rate of return was extremely low.