Behaviorism: Psychological Theories essay

The pigeons and rats had to do certain tasks to retrieve food from a dispenser, such as turning and tapping. If the animals did the correct action, food was dispensed from the food dispenser for each correct response. Therefore they learnt a new behavior. The more they got food, the more they did the correct behavior. What does this theory tell you about human behavior? This theory tells me that behaviors can be learnt by being awarded once an individual does something correctly, in relation to Skinners theory, following instructions.

However, if they see somebody else’s behavior, they conform to what they have seen, this explains why the children acted the way they did. Strengths and Weaknesses The strengths for this Skinner’s theory would be that they give out good reinforcement when good behavior is shown. If they didn’t perform the correct action then they wouldn’t be rewarded so therefore the animal would try again to get the correct response, then they would be awarded. There are a few weakness for this theory, Skinner didn’t test it on humans; they may not react the same way the animals did.

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Humans are more likely to be rebellious against being rewarded therefore it may not work for everybody. Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning is a form of learning, it would be the stimulus giving of response and performing behavior. Classical Conditioning is based around Pavilion’s dog theory. Pavlov believed that an unconditioned stimulus, triggered an unconditioned response. For example, in this experiment the unconditioned stimulus was the dogs food, and the response was the dog salivating.

He then decided that he would introduce a bell into the experiment to represent a neutral stimulus. Therefore whenever food was presented to the dog the bell was rang at the same time. He repeated this several times until eventually he tried to ring the bell without the food resent, as a result the dog carried on salivating. The neutral stimulus (bell) became associated with the unconditioned stimulus (dog food). A new behavior for the dog was learnt. The bell had now became a conditioned stimulus to the dog.

What does this theory tell you about human behavior? This theory teaches us that the behavior of a human is related in the same type of way, humans can develop new behaviors by giving out the same response to a new stimulus. Strengths and Weaknesses The strengths of this theory would be that they tested it on humans, as well s animals, this gave variations in the results that were recorder. This theory must be used in the correct way and may eventually stop children or adults from going near certain things that could be harmful to them.

Social Learning Theory The Social Learning Theory is another learning technique which is learnt from observing others. This learning theory is based on Bandanna’s experiment. In this experiment children witnessed a boob doll being violently played with, such as punching, throwing and kicking. The children then were introduced to the boob doll and as they witnessed, they alternated their playing skills, to hat they watched. The children kicked, punched, and threw the boob doll, just like the model had shown them. They copied somebody else’s behavior. What does this theory tell you about human behavior?

Humans, copy the way other people act, this can change a person’s behavior and can lead to extreme circumstances. Strengths and Weaknesses Bandanna’s theory has some strengths. It gives an accurate picture explaining how behavior is learned and it explains a large number of behaviors, it is accurate and easy to understand. Despite the strengths of this theory, there are weaknesses too. It does not take into account physical and mental changes to a child. It doesn’t explain all behaviors within children and it doesn’t explain behavioral differences within different children.

Cognitive Development Cognitive development is also another type of learning theory. Jean Pigged was the first person to make a systematic study of cognitive development. The theory is about cognitive child development. He did a series of simple but clever tests to reveal different cognitive abilities. What are the main aspects of this theory? There are three basic components to Piglet’s Cognitive theory: schemas building blocks of knowledge), processes that enable the transition from one stage to another (equilibrium, assimilation, and accommodation), and stages of development. Seniority, operational, concrete operational and formal operational). Educational Implications Pigged originally didn’t apply his theory to education, but researches have explained how the features do apply to teaching and learning. Pigged influenced the developing educational policy and teaching, for example, in 1966, the UK Government wrote a review on primary education and it was strongly based on Piglet’s theory. Within classrooms, learning should be student centered. The role of the teacher is to facilitate learning, rather than direct tuition.

Therefore teachers encourage the following within the classroom: focus on the process of learning, rather than the end, for example, learning instead of the exam, using active methods that require rediscovering or reconstructing “truths”. Using collaborative, as well as individual activities, devising situations that present useful problems, and create disequilibrium in the child, evaluate the level of the child’s development, so suitable tasks can be set Strengths and Weaknesses This theory is highly regarded which is a big strength, due to it being so highly regarded, it is used in education, particularly primary.

Piglet’s work has generated high interest and it led to more work in child psychology. There are many weaknesses about this theory, Pigged focused on his children, instead of children around the world. He also didn’t use a wide sample of children. Many researchers believed that children do not automatically move through stages, they suggested that the environment shapes how they move between stages. Psychologists, including Viscosity and Burner questioned whether the takes were real. Some of the tests used were difficult and confusing for the children.

Finally, can the internal process occur in children ever be accurate? Behaviorist’s would say not. Moscow Moscow believed that people had to make their way up a Hierarchy to become the best they can be, they had to reach the top; self-actualization. Strengths and Weaknesses A strength for this theory would be his hierarchy is easy to understand. A weakness would be that some people may disagree with this hierarchy; they may say that nobody ever meets self-actualization. What does this theory tell you about human behavior? Person was feeling like they couldn’t be safe then they wouldn’t have passed the safety stage. Therefore Moscow suggested that if a stage is not met then they should start back at the bottom and work their way up once again. This tells us that a humans behavior is made from scratch, they have to work their way to the top so that they reach self-actualization. Burner Burner’s theory is very similar to Bigotry’s, he agreed with Viscosity when he said that language was very important when a child is developing. He added that symbols would help speed up their development.

He also agreed with Pigged, that children are based with basic cognitive Structures and that children are intrinsically motivated, and explore the environment and adapt to it by interacting with the objects within it. He disagreed with Pigged when he said that it happens in four stages and instead said that it’s the ways of understanding the world instead. These were the three modes; inactive mode, iconic mode, and symbolic mode. Strengths and Weaknesses Burner was not concerned with infant development as much as Pigged and Viscosity.

It isn’t a lifespan theory of cognitive development, it’s more of a general approach to learning. A strength of this theory would be that his focus on education has had a profound effect on education. Viscosity Viscosity believed that children had to develop language to learn new concepts; he believed that this allowed children to become ‘abstract thinkers’ which means that they see things from other perspectives. Social interaction is very important when a child develops. Strengths and Weaknesses A weakness for this theory would be that he failed to take into account the development stages in children.

What does this theory tell you about human When a child draws a picture with a pencil and they go wrong they begin to ray and become upset, with the reassurance of an adult, or parent, or teacher, they will learn that even though they have gone wrong, they can change it still, by using a rubber. This shows that the child understands through somebody telling them, therefore this shows that Bigotry’s theory is believable, and that the way a child behaves is understood in this concept. A strength would be consider cultural differences, which supports usability across cultures.

Carl Rogers Carl Rorer’s believed that everyone was born a good person and that also ‘you are always trying to be the best you can possibly be. By this he means that everybody would trust themselves and work to be the best, their behavior would be good, and they wouldn’t do anything wrong, they were always a perfect person. Carl Rogers believed that there was only thing that a human wanted to do, and that was to fulfill their self-actualization. They needed to achieve the best they could, self-actuality. Rogers believed that everybody could achieve all of their wishes, and goals in life; that they were capable of completing them.

He also believed that everybody had to be treated with respect and trust for them to reach self-actualization. Strengths The strengths of this theory: His theory seems easy to believe and it makes sense. The weaknesses of this theory: The human conditions may not make sense to everybody, and his precision is weak. NOAA Chomsky Chomsky believed that children do not need any type of formal teaching to learn to speak. He believed that it was an innate structure or function, of the human brain, therefore children are born with the natural capability to learn language.

He stated that the brain has a system that recognizes patterns of sounds. He did believe that there Was a critical period for children to learn engage and this was between 3 and 10. This is called the paralinguistic language. His second factor is that the child does not trigger to begin language acquisition, this is called phonological. Next, they grasp the language in the same manner and speak the same way. Semantic language is the next factor, this is where they learn the language and meanings. Finally, the child understands grammar as they get older, this is called the grammar syntax.

Strengths and Weaknesses A weakness of this theory would be it is not easy to prove, because you can’t isolate a child, to see whether it is correct. A strength for this theory would be that the language acquisition device helps the learner to generalize rules and make his own creative use of the language. Freud Fraud’s theory states that the mind has three parts to it: the unconscious level, within the unconscious level are the fears, unacceptable sexual desires, irrational wishes, shameful experiences, selfish needs, immoral urges and violent motives.

The preconscious level, within the preconscious level are the memories and stored knowledge and the conscious level, within the conscious level are the thoughts and perceptions. Freud used the analogy of n iceberg, he did this because you can only see the top of an iceberg, and not what is below the water level. Just like the iceberg we only see and understand a small part of our mind and not our whole mind. Everything below the water level of an iceberg, is the equivalent of a human not seeing and understanding a part of their brain.

The water around it represent everything that we are not aware of, have not experienced, and that has not been integrated into our personalities, referred to as the non-conscious. A strength of this theory was that it was widely accepted and believed by a lot f people, because it was so easy to understand, and easy to picture how the brain is understood by looking at the simple picture of an iceberg as shown above. Tripartite The human is seen to have three separate parts, of which are called the tripartite. The ID This section of the human psyche is all about the wants and the needs of an individual.

For example, when a child is hungry, the ID wants food, and therefore the child cries. Freud believed that the ID is based on our pleasure principle. It consists of all the inherited components of the personality of the individual, the sex instinct – Eros, of which contains the libido. It also includes the aggressive instinct – Thanks. The ID is in the unconscious mind and demands immediate attention. The Ego Freud believed the ego is based on the reality principle. This section of the human psyche is about developing to enable the unrealistic ID to work in the real world, which is why it is related to the reality principle.

Just like the ID the ego seeks pleasure but avoids pain. The section is concerned with developing a realistic strategy to gain pleasure. Freud made the analogy of the ID being a horse and the ego being the rider. This analogy is good because Freud also lived that the Ego was weaker in comparison to the ID, therefore the horse is heavier than the rider, which is true. The ego points an individual in the right direction, but has no understanding of right and wrong, it is only good in the end, when something is achieved, whilst satisfying without causing harm to the ego or the ID.

A good example of this would be, an infant wants food therefore the ID wants food, instead of crying for the food, the child asks their parent/guardian for food, which the ego has led the child in the right direction without causing harm. In summary it’s the ego’s job to et the needs of the ID, while taking into consideration the reality of the situation. The Superego This section of the human psyche happens when a child is around 4-5 years. This section includes the values and morals of society. The superego is the moral part of us and develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our caregivers.

This section is in control of the ID, especially the pulses that society prevents, such as sex and aggression. The superego also persuades the ego to turn to goals, and strive for perfection rather than having simple, realistic ones. This section consists of two systems; conscience and ideal self. The conscious punishes the ego, which causes an emotion for the individual, for example, if the child hurt another individual, the conscious would punish the ego, by doing so the child would then feel guilty, for hurting the other individual. The ideal self is an imaginary picture Of how an individual wants to be and see themselves as.

Within this picture are career aspirations, how they want to behave, and how they was to treat other people. The superego can reward behavior as well as punishing behavior. Psychosocial Freud believed that early development for individuals is very important, because having to develop early makes an individual who they are. He states than an individual goes through five stages, which are also known as the psychosocial development. At each of the five stages an individual’s energy, sometimes referred to as libido, and is focused on at a particular part of the body.

If all the needs at on stage is met, then the individual can move onto the next stage, however, here they become fixated, and stuck at that stage, this results in certain behaviors and traits which are then carried out through adulthood. The first stage is called the oral stage, this stage is from birth up until 18 months. The oral stage focuses on the mouth of the young individual. Freud believed that if a child was brought off their milk early then they would become sarcastic. However if they were brought off late, they would be gullible and a very naive person.

This first stage is all about a child being weaned and the personality traits it can give you. The second stage is called the anal stage, which lasts for 1-3 years. Once the infant has successfully passed through the first stage, oral stage, then they will enter this stage. During this stage the libido is focused on potty training. Freud believe that if the child is pushed into potty training, or before they are ready to go, then the child will become obsessive, and rebel and will refuse to go to the potty to discard their faces. However if the child does not have any boundaries they will become disorganized, creative and a messy person.

The third stage is the phallic stage, this happens between four to five years, and the focus of the libido turns to the genitals. At this stage feelings on the infant are associated with different types of emotions, these tend to be guilt and anxiety, these feeling are about sex and the castration of males. For boys, the Stage is called Oedipus. Which is when they feel like they need to become hostile towards their dad because they have sexual desires towards their mother, as a result they also become possessive over their mother, and try to keep their father away from her.

The only way they can feel that they can have a relationship with their mother, is to kill their father. For girls the stage is called Electra. This is when they feel like they need to become hostile towards their mother because they have sexual desires towards their father. The only way they can have a relationship with their father is to kill their mother. Freud suggests that if this stage is not resolved then they will become homosexual in the future. The fourth stage, is called the latency stage. Within this stage the sexual urges as much quieter, this is because the child is focusing on other things that are more important.

These types of things are sports, friendship and academic excellences. Instead of the child focusing on sexual urges, their new focus is socializing and learning. This Stage happens when the child is between 5 and 7 years. The final stage is called the genital stage. Within this stage puberty starts, this stage never stops and therefore continues throughout the rest of an individual’s life. Freud believed that if individuals got through the other stages easily, without any troubles, then once they reach this stage, they will develop strong heterosexual relationships, without any problems.

This stage is all about the individual’s interests and the needs of others, but also the desire to fit into society. Erik Erikson Erikson is known for the stages of psychosocial development of human beings that he created. He created eight stages that every human had to follow and pass. These started from infancy to late adulthood. The eight stages Trust vs.. Mistrust The conflict at this stage would be whether the child has trust in their main career, usually their mother, or whether they have a mistrusted relationship.

This means if the child has a consistent relationship they will develop a sense of trust. However if the relationship is harsh they will develop a sense of mistrust towards their mother. An example of this conflict would be if they would take it into Other relationships, therefore if they are untrusting in their other they Will find it harder to trust others. Autonomy vs.. Shame and doubt The conflict at this stage would be making their own choices as a child, without their parents help. This means they assert their independence by making their own choice without the assistance of their mother.

An example of this conflict would be the child making the choice of what clothes they would like to wear, picking a toy that they would like to play with, and even walking away from their mother whilst walking. Initiative vs.. Guilt The conflict at this stage would be when a child asks their parents or main are a question and a response isn’t given to the child straight away, this creates tension between them and the child is likely to misbehave. In this case there would be no trust between them.

However, if there was trust between them then the child would be answered, and then they will react well, meaning they would be initiative and playful towards their parents. An example of this conflict would be; if the child understands that there is trust in the relationship they have with their main career, they will act in a certain way around them. However if they are a nuisance, they will develop feelings f guilt for ‘being a nuisance’ for their parents. Industry vs.. Inferiority The conflict in this stage would be the bond between the child and parent.

If the child feels like they are distracting or an interfering with their parents, they presume that they are inferior to them, this can cause tension. On the other hand if the child has a good bond with their parents they feel industry, meaning they have a sense of pride and have more chance of achieving all of their goals. An example Of this conflict would be if a child cannot or is unable to develop a specific skill compared to another individual; athletic, they will evolve a sense of inferiority. Identity vs..

Role Confusion The conflict in this stage would be an adolescence trying to find their identity and role. This means they are finding what they want to do in their future, what steps they require to follow to get to that place. However an adolescence may not know what to do in their future so they have no identity as of yet. They try to develop their identity by doing things they like to do. Erik Erikson believed that adolescence if the most important stage in a person’s life because their choices are made the most at this age. He also believes that adolescents will re-examine their identity to find out who they are.

An example of this would be if the adolescent doesn’t want to go to university but their parents do want them too. Intimacy vs.. Isolation The conflict at this stage would be sharing ourselves with other people which are not family members. This means starting relationships with other people other than family. This would start around the age of 18 to 40. This can lead to comfortable relationships, a sense of commitment, safety and the care between the relationships. If the individual is avoiding intimacy, they will be only and isolated which can lead to depression.