Why do they do this study? What benefits do the researchers note? ; English as a Lingua Franca : Non-Native Accents ; Increasing Need for Teaching Non-Native ; Perfection in communication or Initiative accent? ; English is used more as a lingua franca between non-native speakers than as a first language between native speakers. Even the native speakers are exposed to non-native accents more and more. The need for teaching non-native accents increases correspondingly. So, in order to overcome the barriers for learning and communicating we need to analyses the situation correctly. ; Do we really want to communicate or to each the perfection in standard English? ; The new goal is not only for the British or American community but an international one. ; Non-native speakers should no longer be judged but instead we should develop new approaches to maintain the successful communication with different accents. ; In order to reach that international goal the learners need to be exposed to non-native accents more and more. Jenkins claims that one condition for successful ELF communication is that the listener has had prior exposure to a range of non-native accents. Apart from increasing the understanding Of the accents, exposure is also needed in order to develop a tolerance of difference. ; But, to what extent? This study aims to see the percentage of non-native accents in materials, to what extent and for which reasons is it used. Jenkins Claims That… ; One condition for successful ELF communication is that the listener has had prior exposure to a range of non-native accents.
Apart from increasing the understanding of the accents, exposure is also needed in order to develop a Exposure to nonnative accents is even more important than exposure to native accents, because learners are more likely to encounter Inns than Ins. This, of course, requires new approaches in language teaching where traditionally the native accents have dominated. Non-native speakers will not necessarily be able to understand other non-native speakers if they have only heard native accents during their schooling.
Jenkins (2000: 1 84) observes that the best guarantee of familiarity with different accents is repeated pedagogic exposure, where a learners attention is drawn to particularly difficult phonological features. ; In addition to the negative attitudes towards non-native accents, another reason for not adopting ELF in practice might be that there has been very title descriptive work on ELF and detailed pedagogical suggestions have been few (Stallholder 2004: 225-6; Jenkins 2007: 238).
In other words, old assumptions are being questioned, but new models cannot be offered yet (Stallholder 2004:228). However, this is changing quickly, as descriptive studies on ELF corpora provide more insights into the use and forms of ELF in practice. Moreover, a study conducted in Finland (Rant, forthcoming) suggests that especially young Finnish teachers are slowly starting to accept new ways of looking at English because of the status of English as a global lingua franca. This may lead to new attitudes towards non-native accents, too.
MATERIAL AND METHOD ; The data consists of two book series used in upper secondary schools in Finland: the first five courses of both Culture Cafe (TVA) and In Touch (WOOS). Ten COUrse tapes from Culture Cafe and ten from In Touch have been studied (there are two CDC for each course) How were they selected? ; Both TVA and WOOS are prominent textbook publishers in Finland, and these two book series are among the currently most popular series in Finnish upper secondary schools. By the time of starting tit C or IT, students have studied English for seven years in comprehensive school.
How were the data collected? ; The typescripts for the majority of the courses included in the tapes analysis (culture cafe 1-5 and In Touch 3-5) were studied in order to see whether the recording studios had fulfilled the authors’ requests concerning nonnative accents. Second, one author of both book series was interviewed. Are the data quantified? ; The analysis is mainly quantitative because the amount of non-native speech has been calculated; but also qualitative since the contexts where non-native scents occur are briefly looked into. Do the authors give any evidence of reliability and validity? The interviews were semi-structured, which means that the informants were basically asked the same questions. This kind of interview allows one to make valid comparisons between the interviewees. How were the data analyzed? ; The different accents on the tapes were identified according to specific descriptions of accents: Inner, Outer and Expanding Circle accents and Finnish accent ; When classifying a passage, the researcher attached the importance to that many features of an accent should be cured in that passage. ; It was not important that there were lots of features in a passage, but the relativities of features. Extracts which were long but had a few features were in the category of ‘other variation’ and they were not discussed in the research paper. Methodology Considerations The problems in the research: ; Non-native accents were generally realized by actors ; Non-native accents were not performed by the authentic speakers of that accent ; Categorizing the tracks were difficult because some of them included only a few typical features Of a particular accent Some extracts were very short (Yet, what is important here including the features of a particular accent, not the length of the extract. ; African accents were not good enough because it was performed by the actors (most of them were British) About the Conclusion Alan the conclusion of the study, the researcher claims that Finnish students are made familiar with NSA accent. C]But, the amount of INS accents are not sufficient regarding English as a lingua franca. C]The textbooks are prepared according to CHEF and National Curriculum. So, she argues that the CHEF and NC should be included INS accents. Data and Conclusion Olin the conclusion, she suggests that explosion of NSA accents do not mean Finnish students cannot make conversation with NSA.
Olin the whole data, she introduces C and IT include INS accents such as African, Indian, Jamaican etc. But, according to study INS accents can be found as unsophisticated, ugly or irritating and NSA accents are seen more positive. C]But, up to me the study should be included an comparison between the outputs of other variations and those who studied NSA accents. Owen INS accents are used in the curriculum, it is generally Europe entree; for instance, in Finland the most of immigrants are from Russia but the accent of Russia or Eastern Europe is not intro cued.