Decline of Morals Ethics Values essay

In recent years, it seems that America, has clearly become out of control when it comes to its young people committing crimes, the treatment of the elderly, defacing public property and all together out of control attitudes and non-accountability. There seems to have been more serious crimes committed by youth recently than there has ever been.

By the way some youth act out on social media and television, it could be perceived as if young people no longer live by the morals, ethics, and values taught and passed down through generations of hard working church going, and bible believing religious ancestors of days gone by. Some people could argue that children have begun to explore different religious beliefs and exemplify cultist behaviors. This behavior shows abandonment of those rules of life that were instilled in us as children. It could be questioned that the abandonment is exemplified by behavior far angrier, more sinister, and darker; than any behavior seen in previous years.

Youth today need accountability and a better judgment when it comes to decision making. Therefore, a solution to the problem is to return to the “rock solid” morals, ethics, and values that were taught through religious based organizations and families. This will serve as a solid foundation for the youth of America because it will show stability and focus throughout all families of every ethnicity and background, thus decreasing crime amongst our youth in America. One reason why stability will work is because when stability is increased in the homes it will increase youth’s judgment. Stability forms consistency for the youth.

When young people are taught morals, ethics, and values on a consistent, stable basis they are more likely to retain those teachings. Being moral is to make good choices between right and wrong or good and bad actions (Making Choices: The Moral Aspects of Policing January 2013). Take a look at the Biblical story of the judgment of Solomon. It refers to a story from the Bible where јo women who claimed to be the mother of one son were tricked into revealing the true identity of their son using their emotions. One child was born dead and the other child was alive. Each woman was relentless in the fact that the live child longed to them.

King Solomon asked to be given a sword. He told the women that he would cut the baby in half so that each one could have a piece of the baby. The true mother was revealed because she could not stand to see her child cut in half. The mother who had birthed the stillborn baby told the king to cut the baby in half. This let the king know who in fact was the true mother. (Judgment of Solomon. 2014, December 14). The moral of such story is that when the true mother was faced with the decision whether or not to cut her baby in half she chose to give the baby to the other woman.

This showed that the woman had been taught or at least had learned to have great morals, ethics and values. Scenarios such as this one are rampart in our society today. Youth are being given many choices that solely deal with whether or not it is the “right” thing to do. Another reason why simply teaching better morals, ethics and values will work is because it will give our youth a better focus on life. This better focus can determine the outcome of many criminal activities. Josephs Institute conducts a comprehensive survey of young adults across the country every two years.

The Report Card n the Ethics of American Youth, measures the self-reported values, attitudes, and behavior of high school students. In 201 2 the report card was based on responses from over 20,000 students across the nation. Results showed that most young people feel that ethics and character are important on both a personal level and in business. Surprisingly, most students expressed very cynical attitudes about whether a person can be ethical and succeed in the work force or in life. Moreover, an alarming number Of students admitted to recently lying, cheating, and stealing to gain employment and/or favor (The

Ethics of American Youth; Josephs Institute 2012). The need for morality teachings have been considered for many years. Take notice of a quote from Socrates that was very popular in the sass and its essence was used by the Mayor of Amsterdam, Gibbers van Hall, following a street demonstration in 1966, as reported by The New York Times, April 3, 1966, p. 16. ‘The children now love luxury; they have bad manners, contempt for authority; they show disrespect for elders and love chatter in place of exercise. Children are now tyrants, not the servants of their households. They no longer rise when elders enter the room.

They contradict their parents, chatter before company, gobble up dainties at the table, cross their legs, and tyrannies their teachers. ” (Socrates (469-399 B. C. ) Knowing that there has been a need for morality teaching for so long might lead one to believe that there is no hope for our youth when it comes to criminal harshness or the declination of criminal activity. Socrates expressed misbehaving of the young and how the decline in manners had begun. It clearly emphasizes the fact that if we do not place more focus on the children then the bad manners will multiply into bad actions like serious crimes.

Therefore, a solution to the problem is to return to the “rock solid” morals, ethics, and values that Were taught through religious based organizations and families. This will serve as a solid foundation for the youth of America because it will show stability and focus throughout all families of every ethnicity and background. Thus decreasing crime amongst our youth in America.

Unconscious mind essay

The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious- The conscious holds the information that a person is paying attention to, the preconscious contains the information outside of a person’s attention but is available if needed, the unconscious keeps thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories that people have no awareness but influence every aspect of their day-to-day ivies Psychologists assume that our behavior is determined by unconscious forces of which we are unaware. Each surface thought or behavior hides a hidden motive or intention.

The latent motives for our behavior reflect our instinctive biological drives and our early experiences, particularly before the age of five. Most particularly, it is the way we are treated by our parent’s children that shapes our adult behavior. Defense mechanisms- are behaviors that protect people from anxiety. There are many different kinds of defines mechanisms, many that are automatic and unconscious. Repression- is an unconscious mechanisms employed by the ego to keep distributing or threatening thoughts from becoming conscious.

Denial- involves blocking external events from awareness. If some situation is just too much to handle, then person just refuses to experience. Projection- this involves individuals attributing their own unacceptable thoughts, feeling and motives to another person. Displacement- satisfying an impulse (e. G. Aggression) with a substitute object. Regression- this is a movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress Sublimation- satisfying an impulse (e. G. Aggression) with a sustainable object.

In a socially acceptable way. Psychosocial stages. Oral Stage 1-3- (this is where the ego develops) the infant’s primary source Of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking, or nail biting. Anal stage 1-3- Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements.

Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using the oiled at the appropriate time they’ll become competent, productive and creative adults. According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes in which the individual has a messy, wasteful or a destructive personality. If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive. Phallic Stage 3-6 years- Sensitivity becomes concentrated in the genitals and masturbation (in both sexes) becomes a new interest and source of pleasure.

The child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, which sets in motion the inflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear which Freud called the Oedipus complex (in boys) and the Electra complex (in girls). This is resolved through the process of identification, which involves the child adopting the characteristics of the Same sex parent. Latency Stage (5-to puberty) No more psychosocial development takes place during this stage (latent means hidden). The libido is dormant.

Freud thought that most sexual impulses are repressed during the latent stage and sexual energy can be sublimated (e. G. : defines mechanisms) towards school work, hobbies and reindeer’s. Much of the child’s energies are channeled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge and play becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender. Genital Stage (puberty-adulthood) – This is the last stage of Fraud’s psychosocial theory of personality development and begins in puberty.

It is a time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful resolution of which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another person in our ass’s. Sexual instinct is directed to heterosexual pleasure, rather than self-pleasure like during the phallic stage. For Freud, the proper outlet of the sexual instinct in adults was through heterosexual intercourse. Fixation and conflict may prevent this with the consequence that sexual perversions may develop. For example, fixation at the oral stage may result in a person gaining sexual pleasure primarily from kissing and oral sex, rather than sexual intercourse.

PA Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, originally popularized by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical work of Josef Brewer and others. Freudian slip- A Freudian slip, named after Sigmund Freud, is when someone is speaking, and accidentally says a word on their subconscious mind in place Of another word. He believed that this slip of the tongue was a small insight to someone’s unconscious mind and that there were no accidents, every behavior (including slips of the tongue) was significant I. . All your behavior is determined by yourself. Psychoanalytic Therapy-This type of therapy is based upon the theories and work of Sigmund Freud, who founded the school of thought known as psychoanalysis it looks at the unconscious mind ND how it influences thoughts and behaviors it usually involves looking at early childhood experiences to be able to discover how these events might have shaped the individual and how it contributes to their current actions.

People who use this type of therapy would meet with their therapist once a week monthly and this can carry on for years. It works by the Psychoanalytic therapist listening to the patients talk about what’s going on in their lives and how it affects them it can be referred to as the ‘the talking cure. ” The therapist will look at significant patterns and events that may play a role in he client’s current life psychoanalysts believe that childhood events and unconscious feelings, thoughts, and motivations play a role in mental illness and can maladaptive behaviors.

Hypnosis- We can think of the conscious mind as a flash drive with just enough room to store the memory of our more recent experiences, and the subconscious mind as an enormous computer that stores the memory Of all Of our experiences from the time We first became conscious human beings. The subconscious mind is also quite protective and when it scenes a threat it will create a belief or a habit to keep us safe. For example a young boy was tormented at school and this made him feel out of place an insecure, the subconscious mind then goes through its files in search for something that made him feel better and secure in the past.

One of the earliest sources of comfort for all of us is food and the subconscious mind activates the habit to eat to find security. This may be just what the boy needs to see him through the trauma and give him a sense of security, but because the subconscious mind doesn’t realize when a threat is no longer present, and he gets stuck with the habit of overeating when she feels stress. Once you’ve been put in to a chance there are two options you can then take the first is that the hypnotist can then simply cancel out old (bad) influences and replace them with the new, healthier ones.

The second is for the hypnotist to then help you find the he experiences that have caused a problem. When the experiences have be found the hypnotist can then help you find and heal them. Free Association- Is when the therapist reading a list of word that could relate to their past which could UN lock the memories in there unconscious thoughts like father or childhood and the patient should then immediately responds with the first rod that comes to mind.

It will not work if the patient shows any signs of residences to answering any of the question and words or is reluctant to say what he or she is thinking. However being reluctant can be good because it can give the therapist an insight like hesitation can be a clue that the client is getting close to some important repressed thoughts in their thinking and the therapist needs to spend more time working With them. Freud reported that his free associating patients occasionally experienced such an emotionally intense and vivid memory that they almost relived the experience.

It’s like a flashback but from a dreadful experience like war or rape, such a stressful memory, so real it feels like it is happening again, is called an abreaction. If a memory like this did occur in therapy or when talking with a friend and then after the person feels better it would be called a catharsis. PA play Therapy helps children understand muddled feelings and upsetting events that they haven’t had the chance to sort out properly.

Rather than having to explain what is troubling them, as adult therapy usually expects, children use play to communicate at their own level and at their own pace, thou feeling interrogated or threatened, it is an effective intervention for children with a variety of presenting problems (children who have been abused, those who have experienced loss, children who are ill or disabled or children who have witnessed violence). Play Therapy can offer children a space in which the feelings these experiences generate can be expressed and contained.

It cannot change what has happened but it can promote resilience within each child to enable him or her to discover a more hopeful view of the world. Play Therapy is appropriate for children Of all ages, but is most often seed for children aged between three and twelve years. Play Therapists generally work with individual children but many have experience of working with groups and with siblings. For example a child could be given two dolls start to play with but without using words recreate what they are seeing or having done to them.

Other methods can include: Storytelling Creative Visualization Music Drawing MI Puppets & Masks Drama Dance, Movement Sand play Games Clay & play dough Painting & “One strength of the psychodrama approach is that they focused on the effects that childhood experiences have on the developing personality. This is a strength because Freud was the first psychologist to realism the importance of childhood. It also led to other psychologists including Pigged developing theories on childhood. An example of this is the Little Hans case study. Hans had a fear of castration which led to him having a phobia of horses.

One weakness of the psychodrama approach is that it is deterministic. This is a weakness because it suggests that behavior is pre-determined and people do not have free will. An example of this is the psychosocial stages. “(Equalize. Com, nod) Behaviorism approach The main idea of the behaviorism approach is that you can understand all different types Of behavior just by looking at what a person has learnt this is why they view people as if they are controlled by the environment they are in and how it effects them for example their type of personality like if they are loud, shy or moody.

Psychologists of the approach believe that all the behavior that humans learn come from their experiences, the јo most known psychologists of this approach are Pavlov who is the thinker behind Classical Conditioning this involves learning from association and then there s Skinner who is the creator of Operant Conditioning is when you learn from the consequences of you r behavior both approaches stem form people learning from their environment.

Both of their perspectives may not have ran on exactly the same lines but they both linked back to the fact all learning comes from what behavior people have learned. Behaviorist’s are also strong believers of controlled experiments (scientific methodology) and that observable types of behavior should only be studied as they are easily measured, as well as this the theory implies that people do not have free will because the environment controls behavior. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian physiologist who worked with dogs to find out how their digestive system worked.

It work like this the dog would a harness strapped to their pelvis, two in front and behind their shoulders, one around their neck and one on their foot then there would be monitors connected to their stomachs and mouth to be able to measure how much saliva the dog would produce. Before this experiment was carried it was believed that salvation only happened when food actually touched the tongue but found out that this is not the case as when this experiment was being carried out a laboratory assistant brought in dog food the dog started to produce saliva before it was able to eat it.

The believed that the dog started to do this because it began to link food with the assistant with all this new information he then went on to develop his theory. “Food automatically led to a response of salvation. Since salvation is an automatic (not learned) response, he called this an unconditioned response (OUR) ‘unconditioned’ means ‘not learned’. As food automatically leads to this response, he called this an Unconditioned stimulus (US). ” (Stretch, Whitehorse, M, and 2010:338-339) Then he wanted to e if the dog would associate food with other things like a bell so he would then show the dog food at the same time as the bell.

After trailing this the dog had learnt that the bell meant food was coming and it would produce saliva the dogs response had then turn into a conditional response (CRY) of salvation to the conditioned stimulus (CSS) which was the bell. Brush Frederic skinner (1904-1990) an American psychologist who worked with both pigeons and rats most of the time to understand the key ways in which they learn their behaviors. To do so he would use an apparatus called a ‘Skinners box’. The box is a chamber that includes at least one lever, bar, or key that the animal can manipulate.

When the lever is pressed, food, water, or some other type of reinforcement might be dispensed. Other stimuli can also be presented including lights, sounds, and images. In some instances, the floor of the chamber may be n. D. )This is called Operant conditioning. When the rat is put inside the box for the first time it will run about and sniff the box to become familiar with it and then at some point the rat will press the lever that gives out a pellet, when the rat has pressed the lever any times it will start to learn and understand that doing this would then result in a pellet being released this is a consequence.

Its a consequence “because the pellet is experienced as reinforcing (something the rat would like to have more of) this consequence increases the probability of the behavior being repeated. There are two types of reinforcement: positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. ” (Stretch, B & Whitehorse, M, and 2010:340) Negative reinforcement was shown by giving the rat and unpleasant electric shock which would cause the rat some discomfort. ” As he rat moved about the box it would accidentally knock the lever.

Immediately it did so the electric current would be switched off. The rats quickly learned to go straight to the lever after a few times of being put in the box. The consequence of escaping the electric current ensured that they would repeat the action again and again. “(McLeod, 2014) Punishment will only happen when a behavior is followed up by a Consequence that is seen as unpleasant, he did this by giving the rats a small electric shock when the rat pressed the lever so the rat would then learn not to press the leaver.

Skinner then went on to teach the rats how to avoid at the electric shock by turning on a light and then press the lever because they had then learnt and knew that doing this they would get a pellet and avoid the electric shock. If we were to relate this to humans for example if a student didn’t finish their homework they would then have to pay the teacher five pounds but if the student did the teacher would then pay them five pounds strengthening the behavior the student has toward doing their homework.

PA These next two types of therapy’s I am about to explain are therapy’s that loud have been used in health care settings or still are used in this setting. Aversion therapy is a type of treatment that applies behavioral principles to get rid of unwanted types of behavior by learning new behaviors, with aversion theory the unwanted stimulus is paired with something that would cause discomfort but repeatedly. This therapy is usually used and effective when used with problematic behaviors such as addictions, gambling, bad habits, alcoholism, smoking and violence/anger problems even homosexuality this was used historically.

The end result of this conditioning recess is to start to get the person to link the unwanted stimulus with something that will put them in an uncomfortable situation. At the time of the aversion therapy being carried out the doctor might ask the client to either do or think a type of behavior that they enjoy and at the same time they will be exposed to the unpleasant thing like a bad smell, taste or electric shock.

An example Of this would be “In the case Of alcoholism, what is often done is to require the client to take a sip of alcohol while under the effect of a nausea- inducing drug. Sipping the drink is followed almost at once by vomiting. In future the smell of alcohol produces a memory of vomiting and should stop the patient wanting a drink” (McLeod, 2010) When that feeling has been associated with the unwanted stimulus, the end result would hopefully that the stimulus will then slowly stop.

How effective the therapy is all depends on the amount of factors as well as the methods that have been used and if the client will still practice relapse prevention after the treatment is finished. In some circumstances the patient may go back to their old ways once they have finished the treatment because they aren’t exposed to the deterrent any ore. Problems with this therapy are that there isn’t enough scientific evidence to back it up to say that the aversion therapy is effective. There are also ethical issues about the way the patient is punished this causes a major concern.

In some cases investigators of the therapy have found that clients involved in this can increase their anxiety levels and this then interferes with the therapy’s processes, some clients have even experienced cases of types of hostility and anger during therapy. During the sass Wolfe developed a type of behavioral therapy called systematic desensitizing which was eased on off classical conditioning, the aims the therapy has are to get rid Of the fear response of a phobia by replacing it with a relaxation response to the conditional problem by using counter conditioning bit by bit.

The way this is done by a hierarchy of fear being formed with the conditional problem like a mouse ranked form the least fearful to the most fearful on the hierarchy by practicing their relaxation techniques as they work their way up and when they start to feel comfortable with or around their fear they can then move on to the next as they have overcome that one. So for example someone who is cared of mice may see a small non-moving mouse 6 meters away as only a little threatening but if a big and swiftly moving mouse 2 meters away is coming towards them this would be really threatening.

At this time the client will be asked to imagine the lowest ranked fear in the anxiety hierarchy or in some cases may even have that happen to them the patient will be asked to imagine or confront this fear over and over again until it stops to phase them and make them feel any sense of anxiety this then shows that the therapy has been successful, this process will be done throughout every stage that the patient has on their anxiety hierarchy.

To be able to deal with these situations once the therapy is over the client is given training in relaxation techniques like controlled breathing however studies that have been carried out have shown that none of this is even necessary and that actually the important factor out of all of this is just the exposes people have to the feared thing or situation in its self. The amount of sessions a person needs depends on how serious the persons phobia actually is, the usual amount of sessions a person will require is about four to six sessions but they can have as many as јlevel if the phobia is highly sever.

The therapy is complete once the agreed therapeutic goals are met (not necessarily when the person’s fears have been completely removed). Exposure can be done in two ways: In vitro – the client imagines exposure to the phobic stimulus In vivo ? the client is actually exposed to the phobic stimulus” (McLeod, 2008) One weakness systematic desensitizing it that’s is counts on the client being able to imagine something that they are scared of, because some people are unable to create the image of this in their mind therefore not making it effective.

Systematic desensitizing is highly effective where the problem is a learned anxiety of specific objects/situations (e. G. Phobias). Systematic desensitizing is a slow process. Although, research suggests that the longer the technique takes the more effective it Systematic desensitizing is not effective in treating serious mental disorders like depression and schizophrenia. However, it only treats the symptoms of the disorder, not the underlying cause. (McLeod, 2008) PA Here I am going to explain how some methods are used in a social care environment. Token economy is a type of system that is used to target behaviors that are then reinforced with tokens these are secondary enforces that can then be swapped for rewards these are primary reinforces but the main purpose of this system is that it increases desirable behavior and decreases unwanted behavior.

Tokens can come in any shape or form from things like fake money, shells, buttons or stickers (which are used in primary schools a lot) and the rewards can be from anything to snacks, trips out, or presents. This type of reinforcement has been found to be really popular and effective when working with psychiatric patients but there is a down side because some patients can start to rely on the token economy yester making it harder for them to go and adjust into society when they have left places like hospitals and prisons.

To be specific this system is used a lot with in prisons they would draw up a list of activates they would have to carry out like chores, being polite and respectful, complying with rules that have been set and for each thing they do their tokens would build up resulting in then getting some type of reward from small things to sweet treats to being able to have home visits. Hobbs and Holt (1976) found that when they introduced a token economy system in three juvenile delinquent entrees there was a significant increase in the desired behaviors, compared to the control.

However, Cohen and PIBKAC (1971) recorded that, although delinquents who had been under a token economy system were less likely to refined after one year, after three all positive effects had diminished. (Email’s Blob, 2008)) The long term aim of the curriculum is to teach the prisoners what appropriate kinds of behavior and types of socials skills that will benefit them in the prison that can prevent them from getting into any further confrontation with in the prison and outside.

The outcome that token economy should have still are not guaranteed as it is not something that they have to do so if they wish they can choose to not comply with the scheme making the unwanted behaviors more prominent maybe resulting in refunding happening its known that this scheme works better with people who have been charged with theft and less effective with prisoners who have committed murder.

The word reinforce means the strengthening of something in psychology it refers to any type of stimulus that increases the probability of a certain response. An example of this can be some teaching here dog to sit when they are told and by to get the dog to do this it’s given a treat each time it does in the end the dog will learn to familiarize a treat with being told to sit, this is a type of reinforcement because the dog likes the reward it gets from doing what it called.

This is an easy way to understand what reinforcing is but sometimes we do this without even knowing that we are like telling a friend or family member that they look nice once they have gotten dressed, getting a higher pay check at work because you’ve done a good presentation that benefited the company or telling your child ‘well done’ hen they have done something good.

There are two types of reinforcement Positive and negative reinforcement, “positive reinforcement is when a reward or privilege is given following an appropriate behavior, thus increasing the frequency of the behavior” (Chansons MD, 2011 ) “Negative reinforcement occurs when an event or object the child dislikes is removed after the child demonstrates the appropriate behavior. ” (Chansons M.

D, 201 1) This used a lot with children and usually found to be very effective some examples of positive reinforcement being used could be Japan isn’t very DOD at doing all his chores when he is asked but as Japan is interested in ASS games he and his mum would then come to an agreement that every time Japan does a certain amount of chores when instructed he will earn points that will count to him being given money enabling him to buy his ASS games.

There is also a down side to positive reinforcement though so for example when a child is misbehaving in a supermarket some parents give their child more attention and in some cases even buy their child a toy. Children are very smart so if this continues to happen they will quickly learn that by having mantras they gain something from it like attention from their parent or getting something that they want so parents are then actually reinforcing bad behavior so instead of this the parent should be using positive reinforcement for positive behavior.

MI One strength that the approach has is that it has ” successfully applied classical and operant conditioning to its theories. Systematic desalination is based on classical conditioning and is useful for treating phobias. “(Equalize. Com,n. D. ) A weakness that the theory has also “is that it focuses too much on the ‘nurture’ side of the nature/nurture debate. It suggests that all behavior is learned but cognitive and biological elements have been proved to affect behavior.

An example of this is the assumption that people learn behavior by observing others getting rewarded for certain actions. ” (Equalize. Com,n. D. ) Social learning theory Albert Bandeau a Canadian psychologist (1977) the mind behind the social learning theory states that people behavior is learned from the environment they are in through observational learning, he also believes that humans are ‘active information processors’ and that humans think about link between heir own behavior and the consequences to come but for this to happen cognitive processes must happen.

This theory also believes that role models these can be celebrities, parents, friends or fictional charters, play a vital part in the theory because while we are learning behaviors form anyone and everyone the probability of people copying the behaviors they see all depend on how they actually see the person who is showing them they are called the model.

We are more prone to imitate someone’s behavior if we admire them so for example if somebody is an aspiring singer they are going o idols someone like Beyond© and if they see Beyond© in an advert for driving with a seat belt on there is a higher chance of people actually doing this But if the advert for wearing seat belts Was by someone who is unknown its less likely that people would do this.

The social learning theory believes that people and groups with social power can have a huge influence on the way a person feels, thinks and behaves. A famous illustration of this was the Boob doll experiment with children done by Bandeau in 1961 him and colleagues showed one way in which children learned aggression and his hurry proposes that learning happens through the observations and interactions people have with each other.

The experiment involved in showing children two different types of adult models one of an aggressive adult and the other that is not, once the children have watched each adults behavior they would then be put in a room with a boob doll and then see if they would then imitate the behaviors they have just been shown. He had four main predictions which were 1. “He predicted children who observed an adult acting aggressively would be likely to act aggressively even when the dull model was not present.. 2.

The children who observed the non- aggressive adult model would be less aggressive than the children who observed the aggressive model; the non-aggressive exposure group would also be less aggressive than the control group. 3. Children would be more likely to imitate models of the same-sex rather than models of the opposite- sex. 4. Boys would behave more aggressively than girls. Once the experiment had been done his results were, Children exposed to the violet model tended to imitate the exact behavior they had observed when the adult was no longer present.

Deficiencies In Purchasing Cycle essay

The first control activity is about receiving department. When goods are received, the receiving department verifies the order by comparing the external packing slip with the internal purchase order. And this copy is modified so that the quantity of items ordered is blacked-out. We can see that this control activity does not permit the receiving department to know about the quantity of items ordered. This is a way to motivate staff in receiving department to count the amount of received products on their own.

And to avoid someone skipping this procedure. Because there is a potential risk that the inventory in the warehouse does not match what is in the book. Since the black ink is not permanent, the staff in the receiving department may determine the quantity of items ordered and skip counting the received products. So, this is not a thorough control activity. Because the blacked-out number is an uncertain factor. The receiving department is not supposed to get a purchase order with quantity items. This control activity can be updated by using a separate report with item descriptions. Quantities should not be rented.

So, the second control activity. Once a vendor has been selected, five copies of pre-numbered purchase order are prepared by purchasing department. It is obvious that when purchase order has been decided, there will be a document that is sent to the original department who made the purchasing request. Because the original department need a confirmation about the details about the merchandise, whether it is like the original requirements. So, this is the purpose of this control activity. However, the department preparing the purchase requisition is not supposed to get a copy f the purchase order.

Since purchase order is an authorization to purchase. It should be sent to the vendor only. There is a potential risk that the department will use this purchase order as an authorization to reorder products. And that will be something about employee fraud. This control activity can be updated by just giving a purchase confirmation document to the department who prepared the purchase requisition. So details of the ordered items are reviewed and there will be no deficiency to cause any employee fraud in the original department.

Apple, Inc essay

Problem Overview Apple Inc. Is faced with the challenge of sustaining or growing their market share within the personal computer (PC) and mobile device industries (phones and pads or tablets) from 4. 2% to above within the market. Both industries are intensely competitive and Apple must make a decision as to what comes next for their company, known for its innovation and cult-like following based on products that, elegantly designed, meet consumer needs.

My recommendations are that they simultaneously phase of the PC industry over the next 2 years and increase R&D spending to 15% of their profits per annum immediately into the mobile device industry. Decision criteria In order to evaluate several possible solutions, I identified a number Of decision criteria in my evaluation that I derived from the SOOT analysis (Appendix 1) and Porters Five Forces on the PC, phone, and pad (Appendices 2, 3, and 4 respectively).

They include: R&D investments of 15% of profits per annum grows 5% per annum in the next 3 years; grow the market share by at least 2% per annum in the next 3 years; forecasted unprofitable business lines are eliminated in the next 2 years; ensure that any R&D activities are mounded by the filters of sleekness, light weight; and maintain quick market entry/early mover status by innovating a product from cradle to market within 14 months. Strategic Alternatives Based on a SOOT analysis and Porter’s Five Forces, Apple has several options to solve their challenge. Phase out of the PC industry over the next 2 years. I have chosen to recommend this alternative for several reasons. This industry is intensely competitive, with the major suppliers have significant influence over the major companies like Apple. Apple has been losing market share in the PC and was not a first mover in the mainstream market, so has been ring to claw its way into this market more broadly. Given the leapfrogs in technology from PC’s to smaller personal devices, it’s unclear what future the PC actually has.

Thus, Apple would be wise to remove itself from this industry over the next 2 years and really instead focus on what it is uniquely good at. 2 Increase R spending to 15% of their profits per annum immediately into the mobile device industry. Also recommend this alternative because of the growth opportunities in the mobile device industry. While there is competition here, Apple has been a first mover and considered innovator tit its products, often also having high margins.

They can capitalize on the culture where innovation is already a core principle all the way from technology teams to marketing and is self-enforcing and self-sustaining, by promoting innovation teams with fast turnaround times and employee incentive plans appropriate to the context. It capitalizes on Apple’s strategic advantage. 3 Do nothing. I do not recommend this option, largely because the intense competition in both industries seems to be on a trajectory that will outpace and outperform Apple if it does nothing. 4 International expansion of phone and pad. I do not recommend this alternative.

While emerging markets present a promising opportunity to leapfrog from the PC to personal mobile devices, other countries are not likely to have ability to pay for high costs of Apple’s products; as well, navigating tunes and Passport in other countries may pose to be costly, especially as these are neither necessarily the most profitable of Apple’s product lines. Analysis Decision Criteria R&D spending is at least 15% of profits per annum grows 5% per annum in the next 3 years Market share grows by at least 2% per annum in the next 3 years R&D activities are bounded by core filters

Forecasted unprofitable business lines are eliminated in the next 2 years Product innovated from cradle to market within 14 months Alternatives Phase out of the PC industry over the next 2 years. High Increase R&D spending Do nothing Low Medium International expansion of phone and pad Recommendation Based on this analysis, I recommend that Apple Inc. Simultaneously phase of the PC industry over the next 2 years and increase R&D spending to 15% of their profits per annum immediately into the mobile device industry.

Implementation plan Activity Owner Timing % complete Announce PC phase out with action plan to service existing PC customers ever time CEO Yell -IQ Implement PC phase out with employee/team restructuring and severing supplier contracts Senior management Create innovation teams with clear goals, career climb opportunities, separating individual performance from innovation performance Senior management Kick start innovation challenge Innovation teams Monitor the global industry personal device opportunities for contingency planning Research Ongoing Track performance against goals and indicators Senior management, Finance, Marketing Contingencies If after three years, Apple is not seeing their market share in the personal vice industry increase from 4. 2%, I would recommend revisiting the global expansion opportunities.

Over the last several decades essay

Over the last several decades, the topic of abortion has become an increasingly controversial and heated argument in popular culture, press, and medical fields. The process of the abortion as defined by Merriam-Webster is “the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, resulting in death of the embryo or fetus”. This process has been thoroughly discussed in a number of fields ranging from medical ethics to Christian journalism, in which it has both been defended and attacked.

The main focus of the controversy seems to be determining at what point a fetus is considered a human being and therefore t what point abortion becomes murder. Some argue this occurs at the moment of conception while others believe this does not argue until the fetus develops fingers and vital organs around the tenth week of pregnancy. Some, such as medical ethics author Judith Jarvis Thompson, take a different stance all together and argue that drawing a line between being considered a person and not a person is an illogical argument without purpose.

Thompson claims that calling a fetus at the moment of conception a human is like calling a freshly fallen acorn an oak tree, however, she does agree that the transition room fetus to human being occurs a long time before birth. Judith Jarvis Thompson is an author within the medical ethics field who wrote an article defending abortion for several medical journals in the sass. Her article attempts to avoid the abortion v. Murder argument, and defends medical abortion by accepting for the sake of the argument that a fetus has a right to life.

Through the acceptance of this assumption, she discusses the flaws within the claims of those who argue that abortion is impermissible; she claims that just because a fetus has a right to life this does not rule out the reactive of abortion entirely. Thompson uses the metaphorical situation of a forced kidney donation to a famous violinist to make this point: “You wake up in the morning and find yourself back to back in bed with an unconscious violinist. He has been found to have a fatal kidney ailment, and the Society of Music Lovers has canvassed all the available medical records and found that you alone have the right blood type to help.

They have therefore kidnapped you, and last night the violinist’s circulatory system was plugged into yours, so that your kidneys can be used to extract poisons from his blood as well as our own… To unplug you would be to kill him. But never mind, it’s only for nine months. By then he will have recovered from his ailment, and can safely be unplugged from you”. This metaphor is used to show how Thompson belief that it is foolish to think a fetus’ right to life trumps the mother’s right to her own body.

Thompson continues on in the article to discuss the ways in which forcing a woman to carry a baby to term against her wishes violates that woman’s right to control what happens to her body as well as her right to choose when to become a parent. While I admire Thompson for defending abortion in a manner that addresses the methods right to her own body without ignoring the rights of the fetus, disagree with her choice to ignore the main controversy. If the moral permissibility of abortion is to ever be determined and clearly defined, we must set an exact point at which the fetus gains the right to life.

For example, a possible marker for the transformation of a fetus (a grouping of cells) into a human being could be the first sign of brain activity from within the womb. This marker would set a defining moment for when the grouping of cells begins to transform into a person palpable of thought and activity, and from a spiritual standpoint this could be the point at which a soul enters the body. Another possible way to define the moment when a fetus is considered to be a child is to monitor the growth of the tissues and cells to determine the viability of the fetus (I. . When the fetus could live successfully outside the womb). This indicator seems to be the most used in regulating and drafting abortion laws, and provides an easily determined sign that a fetus has received the right to life as it no longer needs its mother to survive. Possibly a combination of these two methods would be the most beneficial in determining the transition from fetus to baby; together they could conclude when the body and mind are both capable of independent life.

However, both Of these methods can be inconclusive and are more dependent on medical technology than the fetus’ growth/ capability. Using brain activity to gauge the development of a fetus seems like a logical step at first, but after doing some research I learned that the brain activity shown in the womb is a pre-condition of the fetus’ development and does not signify actual consciousness. The next method, measuring viability, seems like the easiest indicator and that’s why its use is so widespread but the results of measuring a fetus’ viability are easily compromised.

The ability of a fetus to survive outside the womb is dependent on the mother’s health before and during pregnancy as well as the medical technology and services available to the fetus. The medical treatment plays a large role as a fetus who could have survived given proper care could easily pass away due to lack of proper immunization or nutrition; therefore measuring viability can produce incorrect results and compromise laws or decisions based on those results.

Overall, Judith Jarvis Thompson did an excellent job of explaining the mothers rights, however think her defense of abortion would have been stronger if she had addressed the issue of at what point the fetus’ rights are determined. I believe that medical abortion is morally permissible but I think that its permissibility is dependent on clarifying the moment at which a fetus becomes a baby and only allowing termination before that point. Terminating the pregnancy after this transition occurs violates the child’s right to life and is orally impermissible.

Nonetheless, am unsure of the role the mothers right to her own body plays in this; I don’t believe it is right to kill an unborn child after they have developed enough to be considered a human being but I don’t believe it is right to force a woman to give up control Of her body for nine months against her wishes. Thompson only addressed the rights of the mother given the fetus has already obtained right to life, and her argument could have been more persuasive had she included a discussion of the mothers rights before the rights of the fetus are determined.

Human essay

What evidence does this case provide for formulating and implementing a systematic approach to performance appraisal? There is lack of communication and information between the manager (Frank) and the worker (Lola). The performance appraisal should be a dynamic tool to achieve goals and to clear objectives and working procedures in order to be more effective. It is necessary to discuss issues during at least once a year. In this case, Frank should explain to Lola what are his expectations and give her feedback in order to achieve the objectives. 2. Do you believe that Lola’s performance evaluation was valid and reliable?

Do you feel that Frank had a bias or stereotypical mind when filling out the evaluation? Explain your answer. Yes. Frank had already mentioned to Sue that he was not pleased with Lola’s performance before the review was made. In it, he listed her inability to successfully complete the tasks that her position required, even when he arranged classes for her in order to improve her Marketing skills. I do not think Frank had any particular bias, but since Lola was the first woman working in the department of Marketing he might have assumed that her work would be mediocre compared to the work done by a man. What in the case indicates a problem with this supervisor’s evaluation? Please connect examples from this case to what the chapter discusses. Firstly, the fact that it was not delivered by the deadline shows a lack of responsibility and respect by Frank. Moreover, Lola s annual evaluation was not presented by Frank because of his personal health so it was done by the Senior Sales Manager. Talking about an employees upcoming evaluation with the Human Resources Manager instead of with the employee herself to improve her performance shows a lack of leadership by Frank.

The review as not done in a timely manner for Lola, which prevented her from taking the proper actions to talk to her manager and communicate to her distaste for the sexual harassment comments. 4. How did Lola, her supervisor, and human resources communicate with one another? Do you feel that a performance appraisal interview should have been more formally established and conducted? Why or why not? There is a paradox in the work relationship between Lola and her supervisor: the sexual harassment put aside, Frank is an outgoing, friendly person but at the beginning he had reserves concerning Lola’s abilities to fulfil her tasks.

We can imagine that his opinion was biasing his communication with her. Lola has a better relationship with Sue, he’s the one who believe in her and she can talk to. The performance appraisal should have definitely been conducted more formally; it is hard to believe that an organisation allows the vice president of sales with 2 months’ work overdue. In this case, discipline and a lack of communication caused this situation. 5. How can Lola’s accusation of sexual harassment affect her personal work performance and her performance evaluation? la s personal work performance was already affected greatly after the exual harassment comments started. She cites an incident when she entered a room and was asked to comment on a particular topic that she Was very uncomfortable with. She claims this affected her performance since she felt the work environment was not welcoming. If this does not change even after she has filed the claim, her work performance will probably keep declining. Her evaluations will be negatively affected as well since she will continue to feel like she is not being taken seriously and being in an environment not fit for growing professionally.

Developing Teams in Business essay

Include whether Bellini’s theory of team roles came into play (did each team member work according to how Beeline states? ). Explain which roles complemented each other (or not) in your group.

Compare the effectiveness of different teams Prepare a presentation that compares the effectiveness of different team situations which you have been involved, good and bad; You must include your progression event team and compare it against your work team or any sports/music/drama team you are involved in. Give a critical commentary based on the theoretical models discussed in class on why some of the teams that you have worked in have been more effective than others.

Define in each what were (or could have been) the success factors/behaviors. Team, task and individual This diagram relates to three core management responsibilities: achieving the task managing the team or group managing individuals Coercive Leadership (French and Raven 1 959) Understanding Power Cities identified five bases of power: Legitimate – This comes from the belief that a person has the formal right to make demands, and to expect compliance and obedience from others.

Edward – This results from one person ‘s ability to compensate another for compliance. Expert – This is based on a person’s superior skill and knowledge. Cerement – This is the result of a person’s perceived attractiveness, worthiness, and right to respect from others. C]Coercive ? This comes from the belief that a person can punish others for noncompliance. If you’re aware of these sources Of power, you can…

L]Better understand why you’re influenced by someone, and decide whether you want to accept the base of power being used. Coercion size your sources of power. C]Build your leadership skills by using and developing your own sources of power, appropriately, and for best effect. ODL : Evaluate the team’s overall effectiveness in meeting its’ objectives, making recommendations for improvements C]Write a formal report to your Programmer Manager that valuates the team’s performance.

It should include: L]The objectives the team was set and how they were met C]How the team organized itself – make judgments on whether this helped the team be effective or not C]Was the team and its leadership effective? How did individuals in the team contribute to the success? C]Make recommendations (with justified reasons) for ways your team could improve in the future CITE complete this task you may need to refer to the effectiveness (or not of) other teams. When commentating on team members, ideally use their Beeline characteristics as opposed to their names.

Contemporary Hero S Quest Presentation essay

Else has a tall, slender build, with long platinum blonde hair, blue eyes, a small nose, and very pale skin with a light dusting of freckles she wears a teal dress with a sweetheart bodice with bronze trim, black long- sleeved turtleneck blouse with red and teal crystals, magenta cape, dark brown flats with gold outlines and teal stockings underneath, and her hair woven in a French braided crown twist bun.

Anna was the sister of the queen Else Else had icy powers that destroyed their kingdom making it winter there Snowman Loaf, Anna and Christofis battle to save the kingdom Elise was born with the power to create ice and snow Her powers were extremely dangerous Their parents die when their ship sinks in the ocean Anna meets a prince name Prince Hans and she fell in love with him and she decide to marry him but her sister Else does not accept the marriage and loses control of her power freezing Reenrolled.

Characteristics and role in Hero’s Quest Anna- is more daring than graceful and, at times, can act before she thinks. Else- looks poised, regal and reserved but she lives n fear as she deal with her secret Loaf- he likes warm hugs and he is a friendly snowman Christofis- he is an outdoors. He lives in the mountains Seven- he is the reindeer of Christofis.

He is Christofis loyal friend, sleigh-puller and conscience Hans- he is the prince and he came to the kingdom to find him a wife to marry mythological and cultural origins of the story The story was really about 2 princess sister Else and Anna who was best friends when they were younger. Else has magical power to create snow and ice and she was born with it. Else powers were growing out of control and their parents decide to tell Else to keep her powers away from Anna and just stay in your room so you wont hurt nobody.

Their parents die when their ship sinks in the ocean. She had to wear gloves to protect her powers because when she touch things she turn it into ice. Else decide to run away and get free from everyone. Anna try to go and bring her sister home but her sister told her to leave her alone and this is where she belong where she can’t hurt no one. The mythological in the story was fear took hold of Else which she was the Snow queen of the kingdom.

Boy Interrupted essay

His sudden death at the age of just 15 years old was such a shock to everyone. When you talk about bipolar disorder you’re talking about a phenomenon so big it can cause death. Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness, that swings a person’s emotions from high and irritable to sad and hopeless which is what happened to Even.

However, in Van’s case it didn’t begin in adolescence or in adulthood years, it began in his early years of life when he was just a little ay. Van’s first thought of death was when he was 5 years old, when he spoke to his mother about different ways of how he would kill himself. He had this random obsession with death, and no fear towards it. When Even gets to fifth grade he gets to a professional doctor to back up the disorder due to his actions.

Then life for him started looking tough with Van’s brothers hoping that Even will make it through life with his bipolar disorder. Van’s doctor prescribed lithium for his disorder, but when Even stopped taking it he went back to his death ideas, although he didn’t show much of it. Finally Even jumped off the window of their apartment in Manhattan when he had only fifteen years. In his computer besides his bed he had left his suicidal note, with why and why not bullet points for what he would live.

I truly wouldn’t have known what to do if this would have been my son, I would be in shock that such a young boy can even think about these things. The fact that he was acting and having thoughts of a teenager at just 7-8 years old is very scary for parents. I think I would’ve tried everything in my power to get help for my son, just like Van’s parents did. Van’s parents did what any other aren’t would do to help their child get better. Don’t think they did anything wrong, what Even did and feel is just something they couldn’t stop. Live it would have happened sooner or later. I agree, with what their psychiatrist said about what their doing is just something to hold it off for now but you can never actually stop it, its all on the person and from what I’ve seen throughout the documentary it just didn’t seem like things were going to get better. I saw that Van’s emotions were just to strong for him to even control it. There was an incident in their family’s past that the family could Eve related o with Van’s uncle, who also committed suicide.

However, it was something that happened before Even was born, Even was not around to see that or know what happened. I don’t think this past family history had anything to do with Van’s case. I believe this is just one of those cases that you have no control over and you need to just keep living day by day like Even did, until his mental illness decided it was time. Cannot imagine how I would feel if it happened to my child, and me there are no words to describe something like this happening. All you can do is keep moving forward for that person and for yourself.

Developmental Analysis Paper essay

Human growth and development over a lifetime shows how a person evolves from birth to the time of death. Psychologists study the development of children teaching influencing their future. My childhood experiences influences my adulthood, but have to show maturity. Does this mean that I do the same things I did as I child? What kind of growth did show from elementary age to high school age? How much of my child will influence my decision-making as I move forward in my developmental stages?

Does my spiritual have an impact on how view myself? I have to take a step back into my past to view my challenges and obstacles. My challenges and obstacles will make or break me. Have to make a decision of what choose to do with what I go through. Introduction Human growth and development affect daily lives and how a person will develop. My life brought great times and not so good times. With going through these different experiences, it brought about who I am today. I never thought as a child how my choices and experiences would influence my life, as I grew older.

Childhood experiences have great influence on how a person grows mentally, physically and, unbelievably, spiritually. I believe that is true in my life due to the childhood experiences had. A person does not realize how their childhood affected them until something actually occurs, as they grow older. Looking back into my life, I know that even though not all of my experiences were great, they made me who I am today. Early Childhood Between the ages of three and six, this was the beginning of how would view life now. As a child, you do not think about the choices you make and affects of them.

How I learned to do things and execute them, showed my development growth and what I should know during those ages. Pigged talked about the “childhood playing a great role in grog. N/the of intelligence and a child learns through exploring actively” (Feldman, 2014). At the age of four, had an accident at daycare where it caused me to have to get surgery. I was outside playing with my friends, as I was running slipped and fell onto a rock. When I looked down, I realized that had broken my arm and my bone was sticking out of my elbow.

After surgery, I ended up with having pens in my elbow and later they were removed from my elbow. At that point, had to wear a cast for a certain amount of time until my healed. Ere to learn to be careful in things encounter myself in. That was a traumatizing moment, because I did not know what would happen if this experience were to happen again, without realizing it. This results in memory of this situation causing me to think about the choices I make because I did not want to have to experience this again. I was afraid that this could happen again. There may be considerable sadness” after a traumatizing event happening. Since did not understand why this happened to me, I was very sad and upset (Term, 1991). I could not do as much because I had to walk around with a cast on my arm. With this event occurring, think about now if I have any children what I would do to try to prevent accidents of that nature. Spiritually, I did not understand God and praying. My mother and grandmother took me to child, but at that age a child do not fully understand what is going on. Faith and optimism, and a positive outlook on life create a healthy brain and body’ (Hellishly, 2011). This statement is true, but a child does not know what the brain or the body is about to have faith in anything. I listened to what my parents told me needed to do to overcome being upset about breaking my elbow. Middle Childhood Thanks to my parents, I grew out of the sadness I felt from breaking my elbow during my early childhood stage. Ages six through eight is when I began to become a little more independent with wanting to do things on my own, such as my schoolwork.

Behavioral changes tend to evolve during this stage due to a child understanding new things. During this stage, this is where my family structure became different from what the first seven years of my life consisted Of. There was a transition from me being the only child in my family. My parents decided to have another child. I was devastated and became very upset because, in my mind, was going to have to share my parents with someone else. Studies show that, ‘Younger firstborns did appear to have more reported problems than older firstborns, in general.

They were more likely to show increases in clinging and seeking adult attention, more distress over time, more time wandering, more withdrawal and had more toileting and night-time accidents” (Evolving, 2012). I did not have nighttime accidents until my brother was born. I did not understand why I was doing it, but it caused my parents give me more attention when I done it. Every time someone showed my brother attention, such as playing with him or holding him, became very jealous and did things to get attention even if that meant I had to do something bad to be disobedient to my parents.

It was once I began to get out of control when things began to change. Ephesians 6:1-3 says, “Children, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is right; Honor thy father and mother; (which is the first commandment with promise; that it may be well with thee, and thou majesty live long on the earth” (KAVA). This was the verse that my parents begin teaching me during this time because my behavior was becoming unacceptable and the bible teaches on how children should treat their parents. My parents wanted me to understand that what I was doing was not making them happy, nor was it pleasing to God.

They had to explain God and the importance of his commandments. Also, John 1 3:34, which says “So now I am giving you a new commandment: Love each other. Just as have loved you, you should love each other” (KAVA). This scripture was the beginning to a developmental change and helped me grow into a better person for today. My parents read me the scripture and explain it. They both spoke on loving everyone. God wants us to love everyone because he loved us before anyone. This meant that needed to love my bother and treat him nice. Not be upset because I was not the only child because he is a blessing from God.

After having this conversation with my parents, I begin to treat my brother different. I would tell my brother I love him every day, help my parents take care of him and try to protect him from any harm. Learning the scriptures enlighten me to how I am suppose to treat people. Late Childhood Between ages nine and twelve, a child’s personality is impacted because they are grower into their own person. Personality predicts important life outcomes, such as the quality of personal relationships, adaptation to life challenges, occupational success, societal involvement, happiness, health, and mortality” (Macadam, & Olson, 201 0, peg. 18). During this stage, this is where a child continues to learn who they. “Children continue their efforts to answer the question “Who Am l? ” as they seek to understand the nature of the self. Although the question does not yet have the urgency it will assume in adolescence, elementary-school-age children still seek to pin down their place in the world” (Feldman, 2014, peg. 17). Once I was in this stage Of development, I was trying to figure out whom was. I got my menstrual period at the age of eleven. I did not understand what it was and why this was happening to me.

These changes caused me to become more distant with friends because I felt embarrassed, not realizing this is something that happens to every female. Wanted to know more about what was happening to me, so I begin to grow more attached to my mother. She would explain that this is something that God created for all females. Was thinking in my mind, n,NH would God do this? ” My mother told me to not worry or stress yeses out over this situation because soon all of my friends will experience the same. The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence explained more about attachment. When distressed, they typically turn to their caregivers, who help them in a sensitive way to handle the distressing situations and affects, thereby giving them increased confidence for exploration while at the same time demonstrating that other humans are available in times of need and that distress can be dealt with, without being overwhelmed” (Relationship, King, Wagoner, & Benson, 2006, peg. 198). This confirms the reasons attachment increased for my mother. After evolving through this situation, I embraced having a cycle stating that was becoming a woman.

Adolescent Middle school has begun and I am excited to be out of elementary school. No, did not go to the middle school wanted to go to, but I am attending a school where I still know quite a few people. The change has begun and feel can do more things, because am in “middle school” and my friend’s parents allow them to. “Changes OCCUr as a result Of puberty and cognitive development, school transitions, and changing roles with peers and families” Stuntman & Cycles, 2007, peg. 522). I felt like I was old enough to go to the movies, mall and sleepovers. My parents were not open to everything I wanted to do.

In my mind, if I was making good grades then I should be able to do the things wanted to do for fun. My parents allowed me to do more once I got in high school. At the time, felt I had made it to becoming a woman. My grades were not a problem, but liking boys and talking back were. Thought was grown and no one could tell me anything because I knew it all. Was on the cheerleaders squad in middle and high school, so thought my friends and I were all that. My relationship with my father became very challenging. He felt I was still his baby girl, so things wanted to do he did not agree with.

He did not understand why was so distant and did not want to hang out with “daddy” anymore. I would explain that I was getting older and wanted to do more things with my friends. An article says, “Relationships with parents often undergo a stressful period during adolescence. Considering that one of the salient developmental tasks confronting adolescents is establishing oneself as an autonomous being, it is not surprising that this stress is often focused on issues of autonomy versus control within the family” (Stuntman & Cycles, 2007, peg. 523). At this point, my father could no longer control every aspect of life and this was a task for him to overcome. Through prayer and counseling, we were able to overcome this issue. My father finally realized that was growing up and have my own mind to make the best decisions for me, he does not have to make many of them for me anymore. Proverbs 22:6 says, “train up a child in the way he should go, and when he grows old he will never depart from it’ (KAVA). Knew what my parents had taught me from when I was a baby, o they had to trust that I would make the right decisions.

Nobody is perfect and I knew would fall short sometimes, but as long as never forgot what I stand for then I would be fine. Early Adulthood The book “Development across the Lifespan”, talked about pastoral thoughts. A pastoral thought is thinking that acknowledges that adult predicaments must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms. As I grew older and entered into college, would make decisions based on how am individually and how it would affect me. Since did not understand what the world was, my potential to think critically was not intact as I thought it was Lully.

Psychologist William Perry explained, “early adulthood represents a period of developmental growth that encompasses mastery’ not just of particular bodies of knowledge, but of ways of understanding the world” (Feldman, 2014, peg. 431 I thought about things to be plain and simple, it either was or it was not. This became a challenge for me, because later after being in college for a year I felt that since could not make the grades that I wanted to make that meant college was not for me. These thoughts caused me to have to take a break from school and learn what the world really entailed.

There were several options I could have taken to make better grades, but I did not. Without seeking those option that meant I would be stuck in the same predicament that I was in from the being. After a year of taking a break from school, I decided to go back. I wanted to take it slow and get back into the swing of class structure, so I attended community college before transferring to a university. While was taking a break, worked full time and begin speaking with my uncle, spiritually. My uncle talked with me about life decision, trial and tribulations, education, and referring to the bible. He helped me to understand life and the world.

I was overjoyed with someone other than my parents encouraging me, because I felt very depressed. Felt I was a disappointment to my parents since I had to take a break from college. Things became easier for me the second time around since I was more focus and had a better perceptive. My relationship with God started to evolve once got myself together. My uncle would give me scriptures to read when things got tough for me. He motivated me to push forward, get my bachelors and to now be achieving my master’s degree. Conclusion Human growth and development are very important on how a person’s life evolves over time.

I learned various tactics and standards through my years. My childhood influenced how would development through my lifespan. Looking back in my life, I am grateful for the good and the bad situations I encountered. These situations made me who I am today. Life is not simple and easy, as a person you have to learn all aspects of what life encounters. There is no perfect person, so everyone has to go through situations to realize the decisions you have to take. In my mid twenties, I have more of a cautious mindset. I know that any decisions I make will either push me forward or bring me down.