The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious- The conscious holds the information that a person is paying attention to, the preconscious contains the information outside of a person’s attention but is available if needed, the unconscious keeps thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories that people have no awareness but influence every aspect of their day-to-day ivies Psychologists assume that our behavior is determined by unconscious forces of which we are unaware. Each surface thought or behavior hides a hidden motive or intention.
The latent motives for our behavior reflect our instinctive biological drives and our early experiences, particularly before the age of five. Most particularly, it is the way we are treated by our parent’s children that shapes our adult behavior. Defense mechanisms- are behaviors that protect people from anxiety. There are many different kinds of defines mechanisms, many that are automatic and unconscious. Repression- is an unconscious mechanisms employed by the ego to keep distributing or threatening thoughts from becoming conscious.
Denial- involves blocking external events from awareness. If some situation is just too much to handle, then person just refuses to experience. Projection- this involves individuals attributing their own unacceptable thoughts, feeling and motives to another person. Displacement- satisfying an impulse (e. G. Aggression) with a substitute object. Regression- this is a movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress Sublimation- satisfying an impulse (e. G. Aggression) with a sustainable object.
In a socially acceptable way. Psychosocial stages. Oral Stage 1-3- (this is where the ego develops) the infant’s primary source Of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking, or nail biting. Anal stage 1-3- Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements.
Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using the oiled at the appropriate time they’ll become competent, productive and creative adults. According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes in which the individual has a messy, wasteful or a destructive personality. If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive. Phallic Stage 3-6 years- Sensitivity becomes concentrated in the genitals and masturbation (in both sexes) becomes a new interest and source of pleasure.
The child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, which sets in motion the inflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear which Freud called the Oedipus complex (in boys) and the Electra complex (in girls). This is resolved through the process of identification, which involves the child adopting the characteristics of the Same sex parent. Latency Stage (5-to puberty) No more psychosocial development takes place during this stage (latent means hidden). The libido is dormant.
Freud thought that most sexual impulses are repressed during the latent stage and sexual energy can be sublimated (e. G. : defines mechanisms) towards school work, hobbies and reindeer’s. Much of the child’s energies are channeled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge and play becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender. Genital Stage (puberty-adulthood) – This is the last stage of Fraud’s psychosocial theory of personality development and begins in puberty.
It is a time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful resolution of which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another person in our ass’s. Sexual instinct is directed to heterosexual pleasure, rather than self-pleasure like during the phallic stage. For Freud, the proper outlet of the sexual instinct in adults was through heterosexual intercourse. Fixation and conflict may prevent this with the consequence that sexual perversions may develop. For example, fixation at the oral stage may result in a person gaining sexual pleasure primarily from kissing and oral sex, rather than sexual intercourse.
PA Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, originally popularized by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical work of Josef Brewer and others. Freudian slip- A Freudian slip, named after Sigmund Freud, is when someone is speaking, and accidentally says a word on their subconscious mind in place Of another word. He believed that this slip of the tongue was a small insight to someone’s unconscious mind and that there were no accidents, every behavior (including slips of the tongue) was significant I. . All your behavior is determined by yourself. Psychoanalytic Therapy-This type of therapy is based upon the theories and work of Sigmund Freud, who founded the school of thought known as psychoanalysis it looks at the unconscious mind ND how it influences thoughts and behaviors it usually involves looking at early childhood experiences to be able to discover how these events might have shaped the individual and how it contributes to their current actions.
People who use this type of therapy would meet with their therapist once a week monthly and this can carry on for years. It works by the Psychoanalytic therapist listening to the patients talk about what’s going on in their lives and how it affects them it can be referred to as the ‘the talking cure. ” The therapist will look at significant patterns and events that may play a role in he client’s current life psychoanalysts believe that childhood events and unconscious feelings, thoughts, and motivations play a role in mental illness and can maladaptive behaviors.
Hypnosis- We can think of the conscious mind as a flash drive with just enough room to store the memory of our more recent experiences, and the subconscious mind as an enormous computer that stores the memory Of all Of our experiences from the time We first became conscious human beings. The subconscious mind is also quite protective and when it scenes a threat it will create a belief or a habit to keep us safe. For example a young boy was tormented at school and this made him feel out of place an insecure, the subconscious mind then goes through its files in search for something that made him feel better and secure in the past.
One of the earliest sources of comfort for all of us is food and the subconscious mind activates the habit to eat to find security. This may be just what the boy needs to see him through the trauma and give him a sense of security, but because the subconscious mind doesn’t realize when a threat is no longer present, and he gets stuck with the habit of overeating when she feels stress. Once you’ve been put in to a chance there are two options you can then take the first is that the hypnotist can then simply cancel out old (bad) influences and replace them with the new, healthier ones.
The second is for the hypnotist to then help you find the he experiences that have caused a problem. When the experiences have be found the hypnotist can then help you find and heal them. Free Association- Is when the therapist reading a list of word that could relate to their past which could UN lock the memories in there unconscious thoughts like father or childhood and the patient should then immediately responds with the first rod that comes to mind.
It will not work if the patient shows any signs of residences to answering any of the question and words or is reluctant to say what he or she is thinking. However being reluctant can be good because it can give the therapist an insight like hesitation can be a clue that the client is getting close to some important repressed thoughts in their thinking and the therapist needs to spend more time working With them. Freud reported that his free associating patients occasionally experienced such an emotionally intense and vivid memory that they almost relived the experience.
It’s like a flashback but from a dreadful experience like war or rape, such a stressful memory, so real it feels like it is happening again, is called an abreaction. If a memory like this did occur in therapy or when talking with a friend and then after the person feels better it would be called a catharsis. PA play Therapy helps children understand muddled feelings and upsetting events that they haven’t had the chance to sort out properly.
Rather than having to explain what is troubling them, as adult therapy usually expects, children use play to communicate at their own level and at their own pace, thou feeling interrogated or threatened, it is an effective intervention for children with a variety of presenting problems (children who have been abused, those who have experienced loss, children who are ill or disabled or children who have witnessed violence). Play Therapy can offer children a space in which the feelings these experiences generate can be expressed and contained.
It cannot change what has happened but it can promote resilience within each child to enable him or her to discover a more hopeful view of the world. Play Therapy is appropriate for children Of all ages, but is most often seed for children aged between three and twelve years. Play Therapists generally work with individual children but many have experience of working with groups and with siblings. For example a child could be given two dolls start to play with but without using words recreate what they are seeing or having done to them.
Other methods can include: Storytelling Creative Visualization Music Drawing MI Puppets & Masks Drama Dance, Movement Sand play Games Clay & play dough Painting & “One strength of the psychodrama approach is that they focused on the effects that childhood experiences have on the developing personality. This is a strength because Freud was the first psychologist to realism the importance of childhood. It also led to other psychologists including Pigged developing theories on childhood. An example of this is the Little Hans case study. Hans had a fear of castration which led to him having a phobia of horses.
One weakness of the psychodrama approach is that it is deterministic. This is a weakness because it suggests that behavior is pre-determined and people do not have free will. An example of this is the psychosocial stages. “(Equalize. Com, nod) Behaviorism approach The main idea of the behaviorism approach is that you can understand all different types Of behavior just by looking at what a person has learnt this is why they view people as if they are controlled by the environment they are in and how it effects them for example their type of personality like if they are loud, shy or moody.
Psychologists of the approach believe that all the behavior that humans learn come from their experiences, the јo most known psychologists of this approach are Pavlov who is the thinker behind Classical Conditioning this involves learning from association and then there s Skinner who is the creator of Operant Conditioning is when you learn from the consequences of you r behavior both approaches stem form people learning from their environment.
Both of their perspectives may not have ran on exactly the same lines but they both linked back to the fact all learning comes from what behavior people have learned. Behaviorist’s are also strong believers of controlled experiments (scientific methodology) and that observable types of behavior should only be studied as they are easily measured, as well as this the theory implies that people do not have free will because the environment controls behavior. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian physiologist who worked with dogs to find out how their digestive system worked.
It work like this the dog would a harness strapped to their pelvis, two in front and behind their shoulders, one around their neck and one on their foot then there would be monitors connected to their stomachs and mouth to be able to measure how much saliva the dog would produce. Before this experiment was carried it was believed that salvation only happened when food actually touched the tongue but found out that this is not the case as when this experiment was being carried out a laboratory assistant brought in dog food the dog started to produce saliva before it was able to eat it.
The believed that the dog started to do this because it began to link food with the assistant with all this new information he then went on to develop his theory. “Food automatically led to a response of salvation. Since salvation is an automatic (not learned) response, he called this an unconditioned response (OUR) ‘unconditioned’ means ‘not learned’. As food automatically leads to this response, he called this an Unconditioned stimulus (US). ” (Stretch, Whitehorse, M, and 2010:338-339) Then he wanted to e if the dog would associate food with other things like a bell so he would then show the dog food at the same time as the bell.
After trailing this the dog had learnt that the bell meant food was coming and it would produce saliva the dogs response had then turn into a conditional response (CRY) of salvation to the conditioned stimulus (CSS) which was the bell. Brush Frederic skinner (1904-1990) an American psychologist who worked with both pigeons and rats most of the time to understand the key ways in which they learn their behaviors. To do so he would use an apparatus called a ‘Skinners box’. The box is a chamber that includes at least one lever, bar, or key that the animal can manipulate.
When the lever is pressed, food, water, or some other type of reinforcement might be dispensed. Other stimuli can also be presented including lights, sounds, and images. In some instances, the floor of the chamber may be n. D. )This is called Operant conditioning. When the rat is put inside the box for the first time it will run about and sniff the box to become familiar with it and then at some point the rat will press the lever that gives out a pellet, when the rat has pressed the lever any times it will start to learn and understand that doing this would then result in a pellet being released this is a consequence.
Its a consequence “because the pellet is experienced as reinforcing (something the rat would like to have more of) this consequence increases the probability of the behavior being repeated. There are two types of reinforcement: positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. ” (Stretch, B & Whitehorse, M, and 2010:340) Negative reinforcement was shown by giving the rat and unpleasant electric shock which would cause the rat some discomfort. ” As he rat moved about the box it would accidentally knock the lever.
Immediately it did so the electric current would be switched off. The rats quickly learned to go straight to the lever after a few times of being put in the box. The consequence of escaping the electric current ensured that they would repeat the action again and again. “(McLeod, 2014) Punishment will only happen when a behavior is followed up by a Consequence that is seen as unpleasant, he did this by giving the rats a small electric shock when the rat pressed the lever so the rat would then learn not to press the leaver.
Skinner then went on to teach the rats how to avoid at the electric shock by turning on a light and then press the lever because they had then learnt and knew that doing this they would get a pellet and avoid the electric shock. If we were to relate this to humans for example if a student didn’t finish their homework they would then have to pay the teacher five pounds but if the student did the teacher would then pay them five pounds strengthening the behavior the student has toward doing their homework.
PA These next two types of therapy’s I am about to explain are therapy’s that loud have been used in health care settings or still are used in this setting. Aversion therapy is a type of treatment that applies behavioral principles to get rid of unwanted types of behavior by learning new behaviors, with aversion theory the unwanted stimulus is paired with something that would cause discomfort but repeatedly. This therapy is usually used and effective when used with problematic behaviors such as addictions, gambling, bad habits, alcoholism, smoking and violence/anger problems even homosexuality this was used historically.
The end result of this conditioning recess is to start to get the person to link the unwanted stimulus with something that will put them in an uncomfortable situation. At the time of the aversion therapy being carried out the doctor might ask the client to either do or think a type of behavior that they enjoy and at the same time they will be exposed to the unpleasant thing like a bad smell, taste or electric shock.
An example Of this would be “In the case Of alcoholism, what is often done is to require the client to take a sip of alcohol while under the effect of a nausea- inducing drug. Sipping the drink is followed almost at once by vomiting. In future the smell of alcohol produces a memory of vomiting and should stop the patient wanting a drink” (McLeod, 2010) When that feeling has been associated with the unwanted stimulus, the end result would hopefully that the stimulus will then slowly stop.
How effective the therapy is all depends on the amount of factors as well as the methods that have been used and if the client will still practice relapse prevention after the treatment is finished. In some circumstances the patient may go back to their old ways once they have finished the treatment because they aren’t exposed to the deterrent any ore. Problems with this therapy are that there isn’t enough scientific evidence to back it up to say that the aversion therapy is effective. There are also ethical issues about the way the patient is punished this causes a major concern.
In some cases investigators of the therapy have found that clients involved in this can increase their anxiety levels and this then interferes with the therapy’s processes, some clients have even experienced cases of types of hostility and anger during therapy. During the sass Wolfe developed a type of behavioral therapy called systematic desensitizing which was eased on off classical conditioning, the aims the therapy has are to get rid Of the fear response of a phobia by replacing it with a relaxation response to the conditional problem by using counter conditioning bit by bit.
The way this is done by a hierarchy of fear being formed with the conditional problem like a mouse ranked form the least fearful to the most fearful on the hierarchy by practicing their relaxation techniques as they work their way up and when they start to feel comfortable with or around their fear they can then move on to the next as they have overcome that one. So for example someone who is cared of mice may see a small non-moving mouse 6 meters away as only a little threatening but if a big and swiftly moving mouse 2 meters away is coming towards them this would be really threatening.
At this time the client will be asked to imagine the lowest ranked fear in the anxiety hierarchy or in some cases may even have that happen to them the patient will be asked to imagine or confront this fear over and over again until it stops to phase them and make them feel any sense of anxiety this then shows that the therapy has been successful, this process will be done throughout every stage that the patient has on their anxiety hierarchy.
To be able to deal with these situations once the therapy is over the client is given training in relaxation techniques like controlled breathing however studies that have been carried out have shown that none of this is even necessary and that actually the important factor out of all of this is just the exposes people have to the feared thing or situation in its self. The amount of sessions a person needs depends on how serious the persons phobia actually is, the usual amount of sessions a person will require is about four to six sessions but they can have as many as јlevel if the phobia is highly sever.
The therapy is complete once the agreed therapeutic goals are met (not necessarily when the person’s fears have been completely removed). Exposure can be done in two ways: In vitro – the client imagines exposure to the phobic stimulus In vivo ? the client is actually exposed to the phobic stimulus” (McLeod, 2008) One weakness systematic desensitizing it that’s is counts on the client being able to imagine something that they are scared of, because some people are unable to create the image of this in their mind therefore not making it effective.
Systematic desensitizing is highly effective where the problem is a learned anxiety of specific objects/situations (e. G. Phobias). Systematic desensitizing is a slow process. Although, research suggests that the longer the technique takes the more effective it Systematic desensitizing is not effective in treating serious mental disorders like depression and schizophrenia. However, it only treats the symptoms of the disorder, not the underlying cause. (McLeod, 2008) PA Here I am going to explain how some methods are used in a social care environment. Token economy is a type of system that is used to target behaviors that are then reinforced with tokens these are secondary enforces that can then be swapped for rewards these are primary reinforces but the main purpose of this system is that it increases desirable behavior and decreases unwanted behavior.
Tokens can come in any shape or form from things like fake money, shells, buttons or stickers (which are used in primary schools a lot) and the rewards can be from anything to snacks, trips out, or presents. This type of reinforcement has been found to be really popular and effective when working with psychiatric patients but there is a down side because some patients can start to rely on the token economy yester making it harder for them to go and adjust into society when they have left places like hospitals and prisons.
To be specific this system is used a lot with in prisons they would draw up a list of activates they would have to carry out like chores, being polite and respectful, complying with rules that have been set and for each thing they do their tokens would build up resulting in then getting some type of reward from small things to sweet treats to being able to have home visits. Hobbs and Holt (1976) found that when they introduced a token economy system in three juvenile delinquent entrees there was a significant increase in the desired behaviors, compared to the control.
However, Cohen and PIBKAC (1971) recorded that, although delinquents who had been under a token economy system were less likely to refined after one year, after three all positive effects had diminished. (Email’s Blob, 2008)) The long term aim of the curriculum is to teach the prisoners what appropriate kinds of behavior and types of socials skills that will benefit them in the prison that can prevent them from getting into any further confrontation with in the prison and outside.
The outcome that token economy should have still are not guaranteed as it is not something that they have to do so if they wish they can choose to not comply with the scheme making the unwanted behaviors more prominent maybe resulting in refunding happening its known that this scheme works better with people who have been charged with theft and less effective with prisoners who have committed murder.
The word reinforce means the strengthening of something in psychology it refers to any type of stimulus that increases the probability of a certain response. An example of this can be some teaching here dog to sit when they are told and by to get the dog to do this it’s given a treat each time it does in the end the dog will learn to familiarize a treat with being told to sit, this is a type of reinforcement because the dog likes the reward it gets from doing what it called.
This is an easy way to understand what reinforcing is but sometimes we do this without even knowing that we are like telling a friend or family member that they look nice once they have gotten dressed, getting a higher pay check at work because you’ve done a good presentation that benefited the company or telling your child ‘well done’ hen they have done something good.
There are two types of reinforcement Positive and negative reinforcement, “positive reinforcement is when a reward or privilege is given following an appropriate behavior, thus increasing the frequency of the behavior” (Chansons MD, 2011 ) “Negative reinforcement occurs when an event or object the child dislikes is removed after the child demonstrates the appropriate behavior. ” (Chansons M.
D, 201 1) This used a lot with children and usually found to be very effective some examples of positive reinforcement being used could be Japan isn’t very DOD at doing all his chores when he is asked but as Japan is interested in ASS games he and his mum would then come to an agreement that every time Japan does a certain amount of chores when instructed he will earn points that will count to him being given money enabling him to buy his ASS games.
There is also a down side to positive reinforcement though so for example when a child is misbehaving in a supermarket some parents give their child more attention and in some cases even buy their child a toy. Children are very smart so if this continues to happen they will quickly learn that by having mantras they gain something from it like attention from their parent or getting something that they want so parents are then actually reinforcing bad behavior so instead of this the parent should be using positive reinforcement for positive behavior.
MI One strength that the approach has is that it has ” successfully applied classical and operant conditioning to its theories. Systematic desalination is based on classical conditioning and is useful for treating phobias. “(Equalize. Com,n. D. ) A weakness that the theory has also “is that it focuses too much on the ‘nurture’ side of the nature/nurture debate. It suggests that all behavior is learned but cognitive and biological elements have been proved to affect behavior.
An example of this is the assumption that people learn behavior by observing others getting rewarded for certain actions. ” (Equalize. Com,n. D. ) Social learning theory Albert Bandeau a Canadian psychologist (1977) the mind behind the social learning theory states that people behavior is learned from the environment they are in through observational learning, he also believes that humans are ‘active information processors’ and that humans think about link between heir own behavior and the consequences to come but for this to happen cognitive processes must happen.
This theory also believes that role models these can be celebrities, parents, friends or fictional charters, play a vital part in the theory because while we are learning behaviors form anyone and everyone the probability of people copying the behaviors they see all depend on how they actually see the person who is showing them they are called the model.
We are more prone to imitate someone’s behavior if we admire them so for example if somebody is an aspiring singer they are going o idols someone like Beyond© and if they see Beyond© in an advert for driving with a seat belt on there is a higher chance of people actually doing this But if the advert for wearing seat belts Was by someone who is unknown its less likely that people would do this.
The social learning theory believes that people and groups with social power can have a huge influence on the way a person feels, thinks and behaves. A famous illustration of this was the Boob doll experiment with children done by Bandeau in 1961 him and colleagues showed one way in which children learned aggression and his hurry proposes that learning happens through the observations and interactions people have with each other.
The experiment involved in showing children two different types of adult models one of an aggressive adult and the other that is not, once the children have watched each adults behavior they would then be put in a room with a boob doll and then see if they would then imitate the behaviors they have just been shown. He had four main predictions which were 1. “He predicted children who observed an adult acting aggressively would be likely to act aggressively even when the dull model was not present.. 2.
The children who observed the non- aggressive adult model would be less aggressive than the children who observed the aggressive model; the non-aggressive exposure group would also be less aggressive than the control group. 3. Children would be more likely to imitate models of the same-sex rather than models of the opposite- sex. 4. Boys would behave more aggressively than girls. Once the experiment had been done his results were, Children exposed to the violet model tended to imitate the exact behavior they had observed when the adult was no longer present.